Alan W. Houseman is President of the Consortium for the National Equal Justice Library. He was Executive Director of the Center for Law and Social Policy (CLASP) from 1981 – 2013. He has been Assistant Director of the Law Students Civil Rights Research Council, a Reginald Heber Smith Fellow, founder and director of Michigan Legal Services and Director of the Research Institute at the Legal Services Corporation. He has written numerous articles, manuals, papers and books on legal services and poverty law advocacy as well as on welfare policies. Volunteer work includes: Chair of the Civil Committee and board member of NLADA; Chair of the Organization of Legal Services Backup Centers; staff to the ABA Presidential Task Force on Access to Justice; and a member of the ABA Task Force to Revise the Standards for the Provision of Civil Legal Aid, the Comprehensive Legal Needs Study Advisory Group, and ABA Special Committee on Access to Justice. He has taught at Georgetown University Law Center and Wayne State University Law School. He is a graduate of Oberlin College and New York University School of Law, where he was a Hays Civil Liberties Fellow. He has received the Earl Johnson Equal Justice Award, National Equal Justice Award, the Oberlin College Distinguish Achievement Award, the Coalition on Human Needs Hero Award and three NLADA Special Awards. He was a member of the Board of Trustees of Oberlin College.
Earl Johnson Jr. served as Justice on the California Court of Appeal for a quarter century, retiring in 2007 for the express purpose of researching and writing a history of civil legal aid in the United States, a three-volume under the title “To Establish Justice for All: The Past and Future of Civil Legal Aid in the United States” (2014). Johnson earned his B.A. with Honors in Economics from Northwestern University, his J.D. from University of Chicago Law School where he was book review editor of the University of Chicago Law Review, and his LL.M. in Criminal Law from Northwestern University School of Law. Johnson started his legal career as a federal prosecutor in the Organized Crime and Racketeering Section, bust shifted to the legal service field when he became Deputy Director of Washington’s Neighborhood Legal Services Project (now Program) in 1964. He served has the Director of the War on Poverty’s OEO Legal Services Program from 1966-68, then as a Professor of Law at the University of Southern California where he also directed the Program on Dispute Resolution Policy at USC’s Social Science Research Institute and was a visiting scholar at the University of Florence’s Comparative Law Center where he worked with Mauro Cappelletti on the Florence Access-to-Justice Project. He co-drafted the first version of the Legal Services Corporation legislation which, after many changes and the hard work of others, eventually passed as the Legal Services Corporation Act in 1974. Johnson’s research resulted in several books and a dozen articles on the subject of legal aid and access to justice, including authoring “Justice and Reform: The Formative Years of the OEO Service Program” (1974) and co-authoring “Toward Equal Justice: A Comparative Study of Legal Aid in Modern Societies” (1975). After his appointment to the bench in 1982, Johnson published several more articles on legal aid and chaired the state bar’s “Access to Justice Working Group” which led to creation of the California Commission on Access to Justice in 1997. Founding chair of National Equal Justice Library at Georgetown Law School which collects and preserve the history of legal aid in criminal and civil cases. Former chair and board member of the California Access to Justice Commission. Member, steering committee of the National Coalition for a Civil Right to Counsel.


Ab Currie, Ph.D. (Sociology, University of Toronto) is currently a Senior Research Fellow at the Canadian Forum on Civil Justice where he is mainly involved in research on legal problems experienced by the public. He is also presently conducting research on innovations in service delivery that involve building the capacity for outreach and holistic & integrated service with a number of community legal clinics in Ontario. Prior to joining the Canadian Forum Ab was Principal Researcher at the Department of Justice Canada where he conducted research in legal aid and access to justice. He has conducted extensive research in criminal and civil legal aid, in particular, on unmet need for criminal legal aid and on the civil justice problems experienced by the public.
Melina Buckley is a lawyer and legal policy consultant. She is associated with the firm of Camp Fiorante Matthews Mogerman in Vancouver as a member of their class action practice group. She recently served as Policy Counsel to the Missing Women Commission of Inquiry. Melina has had an eclectic career working primarily in the areas of access to justice, human rights, constitutional law, and dispute resolution. She has achieved national recognition through public interest litigation including before the Supreme Court of Canada, as well as national legal research and law reform initiatives. She served as project director to the Honourable Bertha Wilson Task Force on Gender Equality in the Legal Profession (1991-1993), the Canadian Bar Association’s Systems of Civil Justice Task Force (1994-1996) and the Jamaica Justice System Reform Initiative (2006-2007). In 2008-2010, Melina served as an advisor in the ongoing constitutional reform process in Nepal with a focus on implementing the constitutional equality rights of women. Melina holds a B.A. with honours from the University of Toronto, a M.A. from the Norman Paterson School of International Affairs at Carleton University, a LL.B. cum laude from the University of Ottawa and a Ph.D. in law from the University of British Columbia. She was called to the Bar of Ontario in 1990 and is currently called to the Bar of British Columbia. Melina is the Chair of the CBA’s National Access to Justice Committee and National Legal Aid Test Case Advisory Committee and serves as co-counsel in this public interest litigation initiative aimed at establishing that poor and vulnerable individuals have a constitutional right to legal aid where their fundamental interests are at stake. She has been active in community service, particularly with the Court Challenges Program of Canada, Women’s Legal Education and Action Fund (LEAF), and the Women’s Court of Canada Project. She is currently a member of The Equality Effect’s “160 Girls” team, a legal initiative that aims to achieve justice and protect against rape of girls in Kenya. In 2011, the Canadian Bar Association awarded Ms. Buckley the Louis St-Laurent Award for distinguished service to the Association’s objectives and goals.
Trevor C. W. Farrow, AB (Princeton), BA/MA (Oxford), LLB (Dalhousie), LLM (Harvard), PhD (Alberta), is a Professor and Associate Dean (Academic) at Osgoode Hall Law School, and the Chair of the Canadian Forum on Civil Justice. He previously served as Associate Dean from 2014-2016 and was the founding Academic Director of the Winkler Institute for Dispute Resolution. Professor Farrow’s teaching and research focus on the administration of civil justice, including legal process, legal and judicial ethics, advocacy, globalization and access to justice. He was formerly a litigation lawyer at the Torys law firm in Toronto. Professor Farrow has received teaching awards from Harvard University and Osgoode Hall Law School.



Stella Maris Martínez is the Chief Public Defender (Public Defender’s Office of Argentina) since July 2006. Official Public Defender before the Supreme Court (Corte Suprema de Justicia de la Nación), from 2001 to 2006. PhD in Law from the University of Salamanca (Universidad de Salamanca), Spain. Lawyer and graduate in Criminology from the Faculty of Law of the University of Buenos Aires (Facultad de Derecho de la Universidad de Buenos Aires). She was director of the Master’s Program in Criminology at the National University of Lomas de Zamora (Universidad Nacional de Lomas de Zamora) and Professor of graduation and post-graduation at the University of Buenos Aires (Universidad de Buenos Aires), National University of Lomas de Zamora (Universidad Nacional de Lomas de Zamora), University of Belgrano (Universidad de Belgrano) and University of the Argentine Social Museum (Universidad del Museo Social Argentino). She is the author of numerous articles on Bioethics (topic on which her doctoral thesis was based, published under the title “Manipulación genética y Derecho Penal”, Editorial Universidad). Former General Secretary of the Inter-American Association of Public Defenders (Asociación Interamericana de Defensorías Públicas – AIDEF). General Coordinator of the Bloque de Defensores Públicos Oficiales del MERCOSUR (BLODEPM) and Nacional Coordinator of the Reunión Especializada de Defensores Públicos Oficiales del MERCOSUR (REDPO). General Secretary of the Federal Council of Defenders and General Advisors of the Argentine Republic (Consejo Federal de Defensores y Asesores Generales de la República Argentina). She was part of the Committee of the “Reglas de Brasilia sobre Acceso a la Justicia de las Personas en Condiciones de Vulnerabilidad” of the Cumbre Judicial Iberoamericana. She has given numerous lectures both locally and internationally.


Kazuo Watanabe is Professor of Law at the University of São Paulo (Universidade de São Paulo – USP) and Former Judge of São Paulo Court of Appeal (Tribunal de Justiça do Estado de São Paulo). He holds a Master’s Degree and PhD from USP. He is also Doctor Honoris Cause from Keio University (Tokyo, Japan). He has served as a member of the legislative committee of several important laws in Brazil. His research resulted in several books and articles on the subject of access to justice, legal aid, and civil procedure, including “Acesso à Ordem Jurídica Justa” (2019); “O controle jurisdicional de políticas públicas”, co-authored with A.P. Grinover (2013) and “Os processos coletivos nos países de civil law e common law: uma análise de direito comparado”, co-authored with A.P. Grinover and L. Mullenix (2011).
Maria Tereza Sadek is a Former Professor at the Department of Political Science – University of São Paulo (Universidade de São Paulo – USP). She holds a Master’s Degree in Social Sciences from PUC-São Paulo (1977), a PhD in Political Science from USP (1984) and a Postdoctoral Degree from the University of California and University of London. She is currently a collaborator at the Fundação Getúlio Vargas (FGV-Rio de Janeiro), senior researcher and research director at the Brazilian Center for Judicial Studies and Research (Centro Brasileiro de Estudos e Pesquisas Judiciais). She is also member of the Commission for Advanced Studies in Administration of Justice (Comissão de Altos Estudos em Administração da Justiça) and member of the Interinstitutional Advisory Council of the Court of Justice of the State of São Paulo (Conselho Consultivo Interinstitucional do Tribunal de Justiça do Estado de São Paulo). She has large experience in Political Science, focusing on Political Theory. Her fields of interest include access to justice, Constitutional Law, access to justice, legal aid and studies of courts, prosecutor’s office and public defender’s office.
Amélia Soares da Rocha is a Professor at Fortaleza University (Universidade de Fortaleza – UNIFOR) and a doctoral researcher at its PhD and Master’s Program. She is the President of the Association of Public Defenders of the State of Ceará (Associação dos Defensores Públicos do Estado do Ceará – ADPEC) and also a Public Defender of the State of Ceara. She has published many articles in the field of legal aid, and the book “Defensoria Pública: Fundamentos, Organização e Funcionamento” (2013).
Franklyn Roger Alves Silva received his PhD in Procedural Law from the State University of Rio de Janeiro (Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro – UERJ, Brazil) in cooperation with University of Pavia (Italy). He is Professor at Foundation Superior School of Public Defender’s Office of Rio de Janeiro (Fundação Escola Superior da Defensoria Pública do Estado do Rio de Janeiro – FESUDEPERJ), where he teaches brazilian legal aid since 2012. He is also a Public Defender of the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil (since 2008) and works representing vulnerable people in civil and criminal cases. His research resulted in several books and articles on the subject of access to justice, legal aid, criminal and civil procedure, including: “Access to Justice in Brazil – The Brazilian Legal Aid Model”, co-authored with A. Castro, C. Alves and D. Esteves (2017); “Princípios Institucionais da Defensoria Pública”, co-authored with D. Esteves (2018); “O CPC/2015 e a Perspectiva da Defensoria Pública”, coordinator (2019); and “Manual de Processo e Prática Penal”, co-authored with L. Silva (2017).
João Eberhardt Francisco holds a doctorate and a master’s degree in civil procedural law from the Faculty of Law of the University of São Paulo (Universidade de São Paulo – USP). His doctoral thesis analyzes theoretically and empirically the constitutionality of the limitations on individual access to justice resulting from the adoption of the aggregate judgment of repetitive processes, having been elected by the Brazilian Institute of Procedural Law as the best thesis of civil procedural law related to jurisdictional precedents in 2018. He teaches civil procedural law in the specialization courses at the Law Faculty of Fundação Getúlio Vargas – FGV Law / SP since 2013. He has been developing empirical legal research concerning access to justice and inequalities arising from the adoption of different means of technology in the judicial system within the access to justice and repetitive claims research group at USP and was a member of the jurists committee appointed by the Brazilian Institute of Procedural Law regarding the alteration of the costs of forensic services and free of charge of Justice. He is a lawyer in São Paulo.
Joaquim Leonel de Rezende Alvim has been Professor of Legal Theory at the Law School of the Federal Fluminense University (UFF), Rio de Janeiro since 1997 and currently is vice coordinator of the Postgraduate Program in Sociology and Law (PPGSD) at UFF. Formerly, he was a member of the Commission of Experts on the Teaching of Law at the Ministry of Education (Brazil) (1997-2001); Scientific Adviser to the Carlos Chagas Filho Foundation for Research Support of the State of Rio de Janeiro (FAPERJ) – Brazil (1997-2017), visiting professor at Flinders University – Adelaide/Australia (2018/2019). Alvim’s principal teaching and research interests lie in the area of Legal Theory and Sociology of Law, with an emphasis on empirical work investigating citizenship, the judiciary, legal professions, legal ethics and legal education. Alvim’s doctorate was in political science from Montpellier I University – France (1997) and he has carried out post-doctoral work at the University of Paris X – Nanterre – France (2004).
José Augusto Garcia de Sousa is a Professor at State University of Rio de Janeiro (Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro – UERJ), since 2002, where he teaches civil procedure law. He received his PhD in Law (2017) from UERJ, Brazil: his doctoral thesis analyzes the process timing in Brazilian civil procedure law. He is a Public Defender of the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, since 1988. He is the current director of the Legal Studies Center of the Public Defender’s Office of the State of Rio de Janeiro (Centro de Estudos Jurídicos da Defensoria Pública do Estado do Rio de Janeiro – CEJUR). He published several articles on the subject of civil procedure law, legal aid and access to justice. He also organized three books on the subject of Public Defender’s Office: “A Defensoria Pública e os processos coletivos: comemorando a Lei federal 11.448, de 15 de janeiro de 2007” (2008); “Uma nova Defensoria Pública pede passagem: reflexões sobre a Lei Complementar 132/09” (2012); e “Coleção Repercussões do Novo CPC – Defensoria Pública” (2015).
Júlio Camargo de Azevedo is Master in Civil Procedural Law by the University of São Paulo (Universidade de São Paulo – USP), where he developed a research about access to justice for vulnerable people. He is a Public Defender of the State of São Paulo (Brazil), since 2014, where he represents people with disabilities and women victim of violence, both in civil and criminal cases. He published several articles on the subject of legal aid, and the book “Prática Civil para Defensoria Pública”. He is also graduated in transformative mediation, leader of the Civil Procedure Study Group of Public Defender’s Office of the State of São Paulo and winner of the VII Award “Justice for all – Josephina Bacariça”, conceived by the civil society in the Public Defender category.
Pedro Lenza has been a law professor for over twenty years. In addition to teaching thousands of law students, he has also given lectures throughout Brazil, including the Supreme Court, Superior Labor Court, and for several state judges and prosecutors. He completed his Masters (2002) and PhD (2006) in law at the University of Sao Paulo (Universidade de São Paulo – USP), which is one of the most respected Universities in Brazil, supervised by Professor Ada Pellegrini Grinover, a distinguished and renowned legal scholar in that country. As a Visiting Scholar, his post-doctorate at Boston College Law School (2018/2019) will be an important step forward in his academic and professional career. Author of the celebrated and best seller “Direito Constitucional Esquematizado®” (his Constitutional Law Treatise), Pedro Lenza is the author of “Teoria Geral da Ação Civil Pública”. 3rd ed. São Paulo: Editora Revista dos Tribunais, 2008. 477 p. (General Theory of Class Actions – Monograph) and Res Judicata “Erga Omnes” in Brazilian Law: class action, constitutionality control and binding precedents, and he is also the coordinator of a collection of 22 titles in other areas of law.
Rafael Vinheiro Monteiro Barbosa received his Mater Degreee and PhD in Civil Procedural Law from the Pontifical Catholic University of São Paulo (Pontifícia Universidade Católica de São Paulo – PUCSP). He also has specialization in Criminal Procedural Law and Criminal Law from the Federal University of Amazonas (Universidade Federal do Amazonas – UFAM). He is the Chief Public Defender of State of Amazonas and Former Director of the Superior School of Public Defender of Amazonas (Escola Superior da Defensoria Pública do Amazonas – ESUDPAM). He is Professor of Civil Procedural Law at the Federal University of Amazonas (Universidade Federal do Amazonas – UFAM), Former Assistant Professor of Civil Procedure Law at the State University of Amazonas (Universidade do Estado do Amazonas – UEA), and guest Professor in postgraduate courses in Civil Procedural Law at the Pontifical Catholic University of Campinas (Pontifícia Universidade Católica de Campinas – PUCCAMP), Itu Faculty of Law (Faculdade de Direito de Itu – FADITU), Superior School of the Judiciary of the State of Amazonas (Escola Superior da Magistratura do Estado do Amazonas – ESMAM), Federal University of Mato Grosso (Universidade Federal do Mato Grosso – UFMT), Pontifical Catholic University of Campinas (Pontifícia Universidade Católica de Campinas – PUCCamp), and North University Center (Centro Universitário do Norte – UNINORTE). He also is the Deputy General Secretary of the Brazilian Institute of Procedural Law in the State of Amazonas and Coordenador of the Center for Process Studies at the Federal University of Amazonas – NEPRO / UFAM.
Roberta Alvim is a Federal Public Defender with a Master in Public Law Studies. Member of the Migration, Stateless and Refugee Working Group of Federal Public Defender’s Office, Roberta coordinates projects related to granting access to justice and law for migrants in Brazil’s justice system, including projects in partnership with United Nations’ agencies since 2017. Her research resulted in many publications on equal access to justice for migrants, including the article “A Review of Brazil’s Public Defender’s Office Work on Protecting Migrants Rights of Venezuelan Citizens” (2018).
Susana Henriques da Costa is Professor at the Law School of the University of São Paulo (Universidade de São Paulo – USP) and visiting Scholar at University of Wisconsin/Madison and at University of Firenze. She is also Public Prosecutor at State of São Paulo.


Sofia Libedinsky, Lawyer Universidad de Chile 1996, Masters Degree Universidad Autónoma de Barcelona, “Criminology and Criminal Law” 2000, and Universidad de Chile “Public Policy” 2013. I have worked mostly as a public servant in the Ministry of Justice, in Criminal Reforms, Mediation and implementation of Family Mandatory Mediation in Chile and the Public Defender´s Office (Defensoría Penal Pública). In the Public Defender´s Office I have worked in different areas: implementation of the criminal reform in Chile, in licitation and providing services of external lawyers and in International area. Now I am in charge of the International Area of the Public Defender´s Office where we have several projects with different countries. We are developing collaborative projects with El Salvador, Honduras, Guatemala and Dominican Republic, regarding assistance in oral litigation regarding adults and youth public defenders and also developing quality assurance programs regarding the public defenders. And also developing indicators regarding quality assurance and control. We have also do some research regarding women imprisoned, migration and criminal system, in serving sentence and in quality assurance for our public defender´s.


Andrea Catalina León Amaya (Lead National Researcher) received her legal education at the Universidad Externado de Colombia (2008), where she earned her postgraduate diploma in Public Law in cooperation with the Universidad Complutense de Madrid (2010). She also received her Master Degree in Law and Sociology from the Fluminense Federal University’s Program of Sociology and Law (Programa de Pós-Graduação em Sociologia e Direito da Univeridade Federal Fluminense – PPGSD/UFF) (2015). During her master’s degree, she joined the Fluminense Laboratory of Process Studies (LAFEP). She is currently a doctoral researcher at the Graduate Program in Law, Institutions and Business at the same university (PPGDIN / UFF), and her research focus on the Judiciary, Justice and Citizenship. She has professional experience as a legal advisor in the Judiciary and in the Defensoria del Pueblo in Colombia. She has also worked as a consultant and researcher in public institutions, social organizations and international cooperation agencies, on the following topics: protection and promotion of human rights, institutional approaches to gender-based violence, public policies, access to justice, transitional justice, empirical socio-legal research, victims’ rights in contexts of armed conflict and feminist legal activism.
Johana Rocha Gómez is lawyer at the Universidad Externado de Colombia, with postgraduate studies in Human Rights, International Humanitarian Law, and Latin American Political Studies. She has 12 years of professional experience in the promotion and protection of rights, the construction of peace and university teaching. She also has solid knowledge in constitutional law, international law, transitional legislation, environmental and agrarian law, and public policies for territorial administration. Experience in designing formal and informal educational curriculum; monitoring, construction, implementation and constitutional control of public policies; implementing differential protection approaches and, especially, the harmless action approach for peacebuilding (ASD-CP). She is skilled in coordinating teams and in the design, monitoring and execution of projects; versatile job development in non-governmental organizations, judicial corporations, state institutions, international cooperators and academia.
Leonel Mauricio Peña Solano is Assistant Magistrate of the Superior Council of the Judiciary of Colombia (Consejo Superior de la Judicatura de Colombia), Technical Secretary of the Subcommittee on Restorative Justice of the Criminal Responsibility System for Adolescents (Subcomité de Justicia Restaurativa del Sistema de Responsabilidad Penal para Adolescentes) and Member of the Technical Committee of the Higher Council for Criminal Policy (Comité Técnico del Consejo Superior de Política Criminal). He is also Coordinator of the working groups for the creation of the restorative and therapeutic justice law in Colombia and the formulation of the reform to the Code for Children and Adolescents. He is Vice Chair of the Colombian Association of Therapeutic Justice (Asociación Colombiana de Justicia Terapéutica), Former Director of the Judicial School “Rodrigo Lara Bonilla” and researcher at the HAKI Foundation. Leonel is academic researcher, postgraduate teacher and lecturer in Colombia, Argentina and Mexico. He is lawyer at the National University of Colombia (Universidad Nacional de Colombia). He holds a Master Degree in Human Rights and Democratization from the Carlos III University of Madrid (Universidad Carlos III de Madrid) and the Universidad Externado de Colombia. He is PhD Candidate in Constitutional Law from the National University of Mar del Plata and PhD Candidate in Criminal Law from the National University of Colombia.


Paula Calderón Devandas is Bachelor of Laws from the University of Costa Rica (Universidad de Costa Rica). Public Defender since 2012. Currently Supervisor of Training of the Social Area of the Public Defender’s Office of Costa Rica (Defensa Pública de Costa Rica).


Juan Mendoza Díaz is Professor of Procedural Law at the Faculty of Law of the University of Havana (Universidad de La Habana – Cuba). Vice-Dean of the Faculty of Law of the University of Havana (Universidad de La Habana – Cuba). Master in Public Law from the University of Valencia (Universidad de Valencia – Spain). Master in Criminal Procedural Law from the University of Havana (Universidad de La Habana – Cuba). PhD in Law from the University of Havana (Universidad de La Habana – Cuba). Director of the Revista Cubana de Derecho. Member of the Editorial Board of the Revista de Estudios Iberoamericanos of the Ibero-American Studies Center of the Rey Juan Carlos University of Madrid (Centro de Estudios de Iberoamérica de la Universidad Rey Juan Carlos de Madrid). President of the Cuban Society of Procedural Law (Sociedad Cubana de Derecho Procesal). Member of the Ibero-American Institute of Procedural Law (Instituto Iberoamericano de Derecho Procesal). Arbitrator of the Cuban Court of International Commercial Arbitration (Corte Cubana de Arbitraje Comercial Internacional).
Mirel Legrá Fleitas (born in Cuba), is master in Civil Law from Universidad de La Habana (Universidad de La Habana – Cuba), 2014, and doctoral research at the Fluminense Federal University’s Program of Sociology and Law (Programa de Pós-Graduação em Sociologia e Direito da Univeridade Federal Fluminense – PPGSD/UFF), where she conduct a comparative study between Cuban and Brazilian legal systems with emphasis in mediation and conflict resolution. Is an Ambassador of the Foro Internacional de Mediadores Profesionales (FIMEP) in Cuba. She was Judge (2005-2012) in the Civil Court in Cuba and Lawyer (2012-2014) at the Organizacion de Bufetes Colectivos (Cuba). She was also, assistant professor at Universidad de La Habana (Universidad de La Habana – Cuba). Her research resulted in articles on the subject of access to justice and legal aid, including: “Asistencia jurídica: Una perspectiva jurídico-comparada entre Cuba y Brasil” (2016) and “Mediación de conflictos: una mirada al acceso a la justicia a partir de la asistencia jurídica gratuita universitaria” (2017) both in co-authorship with C. F. Alves. “Aspectos materiales y procesales de la obligación de dar alimentos: Breve perspectiva en Cuba y Brasil” co-author with F. P. Pimentel and G. P. Marques.


Ángel Torres Machuca is the head of Ecuador’s General Public Defender’s Office, a justice institution that represents vulnerable citizens and priority groups who cannot afford to hire a private attorney. He is a Doctor of Jurisprudence, Attorney of the Courts of the Republic, Postgraduate in Law and Specialization in Public Contracting and State Administration. In his professional career he was a public defender of Family, Children and Adolescents, Judge and legal officer.
Elizabeth Arroyo León is the Advisor to the General Public Defender on quality policy. She has a Master’s degree in Business Management, a Master’s degree in International Cooperation, International Law and Human Rights and is a postgraduate university teacher.
Diego Vaca Enríquez is a Mathematical Engineer with a postgraduate degree in Economics of Development. In his professional career, he is the National Director of Applied Research for the Public Defender’s Office. Previously, he was head of research at the Superintendence of Popular and Solidarity Economy and researcher at the National Drug Observatory and Central Bank of Ecuador.


Josefina Pavon Duron (born in Tegucigalpa, Honduras) studied at the El Progreso mixed school, then at the Instituto Moderno. Culminating her studies at the Central Institute Vicente Cáceres obtaining the title of Commercial Expert and Public Accountant. She began to study law at the National Autonomous University of Honduras (Universidad Nacional Autónoma de Honduras), obtaining a Bachelor’s Degree in Legal and Social Sciences with a degree in Mercantile Law. She joined the Supreme Court of Justice as Public Defender in the penal area on September 21, 2005. Subsequently, she obtain the Master’s Degree in Public Policies and Security Management. She is highly committed to all those vulnerable people with limited economic resources who need to be heard and need to assert their rights.
Lucía Maria Navas is Public Defender in Honduras.


Ricardo García de la Rosa holds an LLB from the Universidad Panamericana, MA in LL.M. and PhD from the Université Jean-Moulin Lyon 3, France. He is Professor of Law at the ITAM Faculty, Division of Social Sciences and Law, Mexico.


Belinda Guevara Casaya is Public Defender Supervisor and National Coordinator of Criminal Execution Law in the Public Defender’s Office of Nicaragua. She is Bachelor of Laws from the Central American University (Universidad Centroamericana – UCA), 1992, and was incorporated as a lawyer and public notary in the Supreme Court of Justice, 1993. She holds a diploma in “Transversalizacion de la Perspectiva de Género en el quehacer del personal de la Defensoría Publica”, 2019; and a diploma in “Derechos Humanos de los Pueblos Indígenas y Afro descendientes”, 2014. She also holds a Postgraduate Diploma awarded by the Faculty of Law of the University of Chile (Universidad de Chile) in “La Responsabilidad Internacional de los Estados y las Reparaciones ante la Corte Interamericana de Derechos Humanos”, 2011. She is Postgraduate in Sensitization and Specialization on Gender Violence, Intrafamiliar, Sexual and Trafficking, 2013; Postgraduate in Orality Techniques in Criminal Matters, 2012; Postgraduate in the New Penal Code of the Republic of Nicaragua, 2008; and Postgraduate in Administrative Litigation, 2001.
Clarisa Indiana Ibarra Rivera is the National Director of the Public Defender’s Office of Nicaragua. She is Master Degree in Social Anthropology and Human Rights from the University of the Autonomous Regions of the Nicaraguan Caribbean Coast (Universidad de las Regiones Autónomas de la Costa Caribe Nicaragüense), 2007. She is also Master Degree in Law and Human Development from the King Juan Carlos University (Universidad Rey Juan Carlos – Spain), 2017. She is Bachelor of Laws from the National Autonomous University of Nicaragua (Universidad Nacional Autónoma de Nicaragua), 1992, and was incorporated as a lawyer and public notary in the Supreme Court of Justice, 1993. She was appointed Sole Judge of the Puerto Cabezas District, with jurisdiction throughout the North Atlantic Autonomous Region, 1995, and Appointed as Magistrate President of the Court of Appeals RAAN, 1999.
Sheyla Calero Castro is Public Defender in the Public Defender’s Office of Nicaragua.


Jacob Alonso Orribarra, graduated in Law and Political Science from the Autonomous University of Chiriqui (Universidad Autónoma de Chiriquí – Republic of Panama). He is Master’s Degree in Higher Education; Master’s Degree of Laws with specialization in Procedural Law; Master’s Degree in Environmental Law; Master’s Degree in Criminal Law and Criminal Procedure; Master’s Degree in Human Rights and Constitutional Justice; Postgraduate in Fundamental Guarantees and Accusatory System. He has specialization in Criminal Law and Human Rights, and Diploma in Accusatory Criminal System and Mediation. He is also Professor of Law in different Universities at the National Level, teaching courses at the undergraduate, postgraduate and masters level. At the professional level, since 2002 he joined the Judicial Branch of the Republic of Panama, where he has held various positions such as: Judicial Secretary; Municipal Judge; and Public Defender’s Assistant. He is currently a Public Defender in Panama. For his improvement he has participated in multiple congresses, national and international seminars. In the same way he is a lecturer in matters of criminal procedure law, penalty law and human rights. Author of several articles in the area of criminal procedure law.
José Dídimo Escobar Concepción. Bachelor Degree in Law and Political Sciences from Universidad de Panamá – Chapter of Honor: Sigma Lambda. Diplomaed in: 1. Public Contracting from Universidad Panamericana de Panamá. 2. Criminal Accusatory System from Universidad del Istmo de Panamá. 3. Alternative Methods for the Resolution of Conflicts from Universidad Latina de Panamá. Postgraduate Degree as Specialist in Superior Teaching from Universidad de Panamá. Master Degree in: 1. Process Law from Universidad Interamericana de Panamá. 2. Trade Law from Universidad Interamericana de Panamá. 3. Corporate Finance from Universidad Especializada del Contador Público Autorizado de Panamá. 4. Criminal Law and Criminal Process Law from Instituto Nacional de Estudios Jurídicos de Nicaragua. PhD Candidate in Business and Administration from Universidad del Istmo de Panamá. He is also a public translator / interpreter from English to Spanish and vice versa, mediator / conciliator, real estate broker, authorized custodian of bearer shares and licensed announcer. Among his most relevant experiences: he acted as Ad Honorem Legal Advisor in the Permanent Commission of Population, Environment and Development of the Legislative Power, Assistant of Supreme Court´s Magistrate, Corporate Governance Officer in a Banking Economic Group, Founder of the Forensic Firm Iurisconsultants – Escobar, Concepción & Associates (IECA). Currently, he practices the Law as Public Defender in the city of Panama. Author of several legal articles in different magazines and has taught at levels from bachelor to master’s degrees. Speaker at seminars, trainings and conferences.


Adriana Raquel Marecos Gamarra Lawyer and Public Notary (National University of Asunción). Master in Protection of Human Rights (Faculty of Law of the University of Alcalá – Spain). Professor of Human Rights and Children Rights (UNINORTE). Former Professor of Constitutional Law (Faculty of Law and Social Sciences of the UNA and Faculty of Law of the American University). She has also been Professor of post-graduation in Constitutional Procedural Law (Catholic University of Villarrica) and Professor in the Master’s Program of Family Law (Universidad del Pacífico). She was rapporteur of the Constitutional Chamber of the C.S.J. of Paraguay and currently holds the position of Public Defender of the Ministry of Public Defense of Paraguay (Ministerio de la Defensa Pública del Paraguay). She is co-author of the book “Protección de Datos Personales” (C.S.J.) and author of the book “Tortura y Muerte. Caso Schaerer Prono” (C.S.J.; Secretaría de Cultura). She has also published articles in journals on Constitutional Law, Constitutional Procedure, Children Rights, Human Rights, Access to Public Information and Protection of Personal Data.
Edgar Rios is Public Defender of the Ministry of Public Defense of Paraguay (Ministerio de la Defensa Pública del Paraguay).
Maria Elena Meza is Public Defender and Director of the Department of International and Interinstitutional Relations of the Ministry of Public Defense of Paraguay (Ministerio de la Defensa Pública del Paraguay).
Tania Arguello is Public Defender of the Ministry of Public Defense of Paraguay (Ministerio de la Defensa Pública del Paraguay).
Ubaldo Matias Garcete Piris. Lawyer (Faculty of Law and Social Sciences of the National University of Asunción – Paraguay). Public Notary (Faculty of Law and Social Sciences of the National University of Asunción – Paraguay). PhD researcher (Faculty of Law of the National University of Rosario – Argentina). Master of Criminal Sciences (Faculty of Law and Social Sciences of the National University of Asunción – Paraguay). International Master’s Degree in Human Rights with Emphasis in Control of Conventionality (Columbia University of Paraguay). Specialization in Criminal Sciences and University Higher Education (Faculty of Law and Social Sciences of the National University of Asunción – Paraguay). Graduated from the Judicial School of Paraguay (Promotion XVI). Graduated from the Litigation Skills Academy (California Western School of Law – San Diego, USA). Diploma in Criminal Law and International Criminal Procedure (Universidad Católica Nuestra Señora de la Asunción – Paraguay). Diploma in Criminal Law with Constitutional Support (Universidad Católica Nuestra Señora de la Asunción – Paraguay). Diploma in Legal Argumentation (Judicial School – Council of the Judiciary of Paraguay). Diploma in Criminal Law (Universidad Católica Nuestra Señora de la Asunción – Paraguay). Update Course on Questions of Criminal Dogmatics (Association of Judges of Paraguay). Teaching researcher. International Speaker. Public Defender of the Ministry of Public Defense of Paraguay (Ministerio de la Defensa Pública del Paraguay).


Fernando Del Mastro Puccio is Professor at the Pontificia Universidad Católica del Perú (PUCP). He holds a Master’s Degree in Theoretical Studies in Psychoanalysis from PUCP, and Master’s Degree in Law from Duke University, as a Fulbright fellow. He is also the winner of the Justin Miller Award for Leadership and Community Participation (Duke University, 2013). His research resulted in several books and articles including: “Un modelo de consejería de carrera para estudiantes de Derecho: reflexiones en torno a la educación legal y el bienestar de los estudiantes de Derecho” (2017); and “La aplicación del Nuevo Código Procesal Penal en Huaura. Una experiencia positiva” (2008).
Augustín Grandez Mariño is Professor at the Pontificia Universidad Católica del Perú (PUCP). He holds a Master’s Degree in from Duke University. His research resulted in several books and articles including: “El derecho a la verdad en la jurisprudencia de la Corte Interamericana de Derechos Humanos y el Tribunal Constitucional peruano” (2012); “¿Estamos frente a una desnaturalización del estado de emergencia?” (2012); and “Oportunidades perdidas: un análisis de la Sentencia del Tribunal Constitucional en el caso Alberto Químper” (2012).


Adriana Berezan is the President of the Association of Public Defenders of Uruguay (Asociación de Defensores Públicos del Uruguay – ADEPU) and Public Defender of Uruguay.
Joaquin Gamba is Public Defender of Uruguay.




Bettina Lemann Kristiansen is professor of Sociology of Law, School of Law, Aarhus University, Denmark. From 2010 to 2016 she was also the manager of the Aarhus Legal Aid Office. Lemann Kristiansen´s recent research has focused on Access to Justice and Legal Aid. She is member of the steering group for the INTRAlaw (International and Transnational Tendencies in Law) Research Center at the University of Aarhus and the project leader of the Access to Justice project at INTRAlaw. Lemann Kristiansen is also a member of FAMLAPP research Center at Aalborg University, Denmark, which is a cross-institutional and cross-disciplinary research cluster on family law, practices, and policies. Other research topics are legal adjudication by non-lawyers, general tendencies of development in law (especially welfare regulation), such as globalisation, digitalisation and pluralism, and (alternative) conflict resolution.


Kaijus Ervasti (Lead National Researcher) is working as a director of research in the Institute of Criminology and Legal Policy in the University of Helsinki. He is doctor of laws. He has been involved in many Governmental and Working Group Committees on issues related to civil procedure, court system and mediation. Ervasti has given lectures on sociology of law, procedural law and ADR and mediation in many universities. He has given also lectures on effects of laws to law drafters in HAUS (Finnish Institute of Public Management). He has worked as a trainer in mediation training programs for judges, attorneys and mediators. He worked also as a training expert in EU Twinning project “Support to the development of alternative dispute resolutions in Albania” 2015-2017 and in TAIEX project “ADR in administrative law” 2015 in Turkey. He has written 25 books or research reports and hundreds of articles and reviews. Writings are dealing with sociology of law, history of the law, procedural law, law drafting, mediation and conflict resolution. In the year 2017 he published with other Nordic researchers (Anna Nylund, Lin Adrian) book “Nordic Mediation Research” (Springer).
Kati Rantala (Lead National Researcher) is working as a research director at the Institute of Criminology and Legal Policy in the University of Helsinki, at the research unit of Legal Policy Research. She has earned a PhD in sociology and, and she is also an Adjunct Professor of Sociology. The research unit of Legal Policy Research focuses on access to justice, debt problems and legislative issues (for example ex ante and ex post evaluations). Rantala has published on all of those areas, and several others. Regarding access to justice, ongoing projects include, for example, an evaluation of the law on equality, the functioning of legal aid services, and a survey on legal needs. Recently, Rantala has worked for a year as a Senior Adviser in the Prime Minister’s Office of Finland, in the secretariat of Finnish Council of Regulatory Impact Analysis.
Sonal Makhija is post-doctoral researcher at the legal policy unit of the Institute of Criminology and Legal Policy (ICLP).
Noora Alasuutari is doctoral researcher at the legal policy unit of the Institute of Criminology and Legal Policy (ICLP).

Chris A. Carling is research assistant at the Institute of Criminology and Legal Policy (ICLP).

Aino Jauhiainen is research assistant at the Institute of Criminology and Legal Policy (ICLP).
Kati Nieminen (MA, LLD) is a post-doctoral researcher at the Institute of Criminology and legal policy at the University of Helsinki. Her research covers areas such as access to justice and legislative research. Currently she participates in research projects on access to legal aid (, and discrimination (
Yaira Obstbaum works as postdoctoral researcher at the Institute of Criminology and Legal Policy in the University of Helsinki. She is Doctor of Social Sciences. She is currently working with launching a Finnish legal-needs study. Dr. Obstbaum has worked in the areas of sociology, criminology and sociology of law. She has done research on services for alcohol and drugs users, and problems concerning their implementation and sufficiency, particularly among Finnish prisoners. She has also worked with juvenile delinquency surveys. Obstbaum has also worked at the intra-governmental Nordic Welfare Centre (NVC), with Nordic cannabis policy and legislation from a cannabis user-perspective, and with youth drinking trends as well as for the Finish Ministry of Justice with crime prevention questions. Obstbaum has spent time as a guest researcher at the Stein Rokkan Centre for Social Studies at the University of Bergen.
Laura Sarasoja is doctoral researcher at the legal policy unit of the Institute of Criminology and Legal Policy (ICLP).


Halldór Þormar Halldórsson.


Kristian Andenæs is a professor emeritus in sociology of law at the Law Faculty, University of Oslo and he was the director of Jussbuss Law Clinic 1989-2009. He has also been an assistant district judge, assistant professor at the University of Tromsø and legal advisor in the Ministry of Social Affairs. He has published a number of books, articles and reports on sociology of law, social policy, legal aid, welfare law, decision-making by non-legal professionals and the treatment of disadvantaged groups by public authorities. He has been heading research projects, recently “Legal standards and professional judgment in Education”, and among others on judicialization (Verrechtlichung), on communication and the use of interpretation in courts and in public administration, and legal aid and anti-discrimination work for immigrants. Currently, he is editing a book on critical criminal policy in Norway. From 2018 he is a member of the law commission preparing new legislation on legal aid. The book “Outsourcing Legal Aid in the Nordic Welfare States”, edited by Hammerslev and Rønning, Palgrave Macmillan 2018, is dedicated to Kristian Andenæs.


Isabel Schoultz is Assistant Professor at the Sociology of Law Department, Lund University, Sweden. She has published academic papers on a variety of topics, including denials of corporate crime, state crime in street-level bureaucracy, legal aid in Sweden and access to justice in the European Court. She recently co-authored a book on Edwin Sutherland (Routledge, 2017), with David Friedrichs and Aleksandra Jordanoska.
Heraclitos Muhire has a Bachelors in Criminology and is a second year Master student in Sociology of Law at Lund University. Muhire’s Research interests are Access to Justice and white-collar crime.
Enrico Giansanti has a Bachelors of Laws in Law from the University of Leicester and he is currently a second year Master student in Sociology of Law at Lund University. Giansanti’s main research interests are Access to Justice for vulnerable groups, migration and white-collar crime.



Aurela Anastas is PhD in Judicial Studies and Professor of Constitutional Law, Comparative Constitutional Law and History of Law at University of Tirana (Albania). She was Executive Director of the Center for Legal Civil Initiatives.


Ljiljana Davidović is Expert Advisor for Legal Aid of the Ministry of the Reform of Bosnia and Herzegovina.


Ivanka Ivanova is PhD in Sociology and Master in Law from the Sofia University St. Kliment Ohridski. She is also the Law Program Director of the Open Society Institute, Sofia.


Irakli Shonia is the deputy director of the Legal Aid Service of Georgia. He holds this position since October 2014 and supervises the quality of monitoring and human resources management. In 2008-2013 he worked at the Legal Aid Service Monitoring and Analysis Division. His responsibilities include issues related to lawyers’ attorneys, professional standards and quality assurance services provided by the Legal Aid Service. Irakli Shonia is an active member of the Lawyers Professional. In 2012-2013 he was a member of the Ethics Commission of the Georgian Bar Association.
Since 2007, Irakli Shonia is actively involved in developing various training modules for lawyers of Georgian Bar Association and Legal Aid Service. He is also a certified trainer for various local and international organizations such as Georgian Bar Association, American Bar Association, Council of Europe, European Union, Norwegian Rule of Law Advisory in Georgia for professional ethics, criminal procedure, judicial skills, Judicial decisions and legal spells, as well as minor juvenile justice issues.
Irakli Shonia actively participates in Legal Aid Reformers’ Network, which works for the reform of legal aid systems in post-socialist countries and professional standards for criminal lawyers.
Since 2005 he is a member of the Georgian Young Lawyers Association2006-2007 -Member of the Association of Lawyers
2013-February 2014 Head of Ivane Javakhishvili Tbilisi State University Master of Law Faculty (Legal Aid Service Clinic).
From 2013 to 2017, Ivane Javakhishvili Tbilisi State University invited specialist to the Faculty of Law Faculty of Practical Skills
Invited expert to GuramTvartkiladze Teaching University from 2013 to 2018 “Basics of Legal Ethics” and “Practical Skills” Training Course.


Shaikhina Gulnaz graduated with honors from the Kazakh Institute of Jurisprudence in International Relations. She has been in the prosecution bodies since 2002 and worked in various positions, including in the General Prosecutor’s Office of the Republic of Kazakhstan in the field of human rights protection, security and crime prevention. Currently she works as Assistant Rector for International Relations of the Academy of Law Enforcement Agencies under the General Prosecutor’s Office of the Republic of Kazakhstan. She has participated in international projects of the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development on topic “Institutional Strengthening of the Justice Sector”, the purpose of which was to increase the institutional capacity and operational efficiency of justice in Kazakhstan (2014-2017). With the support of the project of the European Union and the Council of Europe “Support for Kazakhstani authorities in improving the quality and effectiveness of the judicial system of Kazakhstan”, training events were held for prosecutors and judges of the country (2016-2018). Within the framework of the project of the United Nations Organization Development Program “Improving National Human Rights Mechanisms and the Effective Implementation of the International Obligations of the Republic of Kazak”, trainings were conducted on counteracting domestic and sexual violence (2017-2018). In order to pool resources and synchronize the efforts of member states and partners (Central Asian countries, the CIS), the project “Regional hub to counter global threats” was implemented on a single platform for training specialists and conducting practice-oriented research. The implementation of which continues to the present. Jointly with the Office of the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe programs, a number of projects have been implemented in the field of security and crime prevention in such areas as countering corruption, violent terrorism and religious terrorism, illicit arms and drug trafficking, investigating financial crimes, and cybersecurity. In November 2018, she was a participant in the international course “Extended Access to Justice” (Tokyo, Japan). According to the results of this event, it was recommended, by analogy with the Japan Legal Support Center “Houterasu”, to open legal centers in Kazakhstan. The Kazakhstan legal journal published an article on the topic: “International Experience: Alternative Models of Legal Aid”.


Anita Kalanderi is a lawyer by her background with extensive legal experience in access to justice and rule of law sector in Kosovo. Anita completed her law degree in 2001, in Law Faculty, University of Pristina. Currently, she holds a position of a Legal Department Director in the Free Legal Aid Agency, managing very successfully the Department she has been assigned to. The Free Legal Aid Agency is the only public institution responsible for provision of free legal aid for people in Kosovo, who cannot afford it financially. Anita has been with the Agency for Free Legal Aid, since its establishment (for about 12 years now), during which time she received a lot of trainings and gained a lot of experience in Access to justice issues. Anita, started her career by working in a non-governmental sector, specifically in lawyers association “NORMA”, and was part of the Legal Aid project, and has a good grasp of non-governmental sector. In parallel, she has been practicing law at the Prishtina District Court. During this time, Anita has cooperate with many international organizations regarding access to justice and rule of law sector, amongst which UNDP, GIZ and USAID, and has been highly valued for her work dedication and professionalism.


Agris Batalauskis is the Director of the Project Department of the Ministry of Justice of Latvia.


Anželika Banevičienė was a director of the State-guaranteed Legal Aid Service of Lithuania, a member of State-guaranteed Legal Aid Co-ordination Council and State-guaranteed Legal Aid Collegium of Lithuania in 2005-2018. She has a PhD in law and takes part in scientific research in the fields of EU Law and Legal Aid. In 2004–2014, Dr. Anželika Banevičienė also gave lectures on EU Law at Mykolas Romeris University in Lithuania. She has shared her experience on legal aid at various international conferences as a speaker and also has contributed her expert knowledge on legal aid to a number of international projects: MS Project Leader and an Expert in EU Twinning light project HR/2009/IB/JH/03TL Improvement of Free Legal Aid Systemin Croatia, 2011–2012; Junior Project Leader, a Leader of the Component on the Development of Legal Aid Strategy in Turkey and an Expert in EU Twinning Project TR 13 IB JH 03 Strengthening Legal Aid Services in Turkey, 2016–2018; Expert in EU Twinning Project TR 13 IB JH 03 Implementation of the best European practices with the aim of strengthening the institutional capacity of the Apparatus of the Ukrainian Parliament Commissioner for Human Rights to protect human rights and freedoms (Apparatus), 2017–2018; Expert in EU Twinning Project TR 15 IPA JH 04 17 Increasing the Organizational Capacity of the Women and Children Sections (WCS) of the Gendarmerie General Command in Turkey, 2018-2020.


Goce Kocevski is a legal counsel and a project manager at the Macedonian Young Lawyers Association (MYLA). His main role is managing a litigation program for litigating cases of human rights violations which include case identification, management of pool of attorneys, developing legal strategy for each case and monitoring of the individual procedures. He also manages a program for legal support to NGOs’ and informal and grass roots initiatives. Mr. Kocevski is a co-editor of the Annual Report on Human Rights Protection in Macedonia published by MYLA. Mr. Kocevski works for MYLA since 2011. At the begging his role was to provide preliminary legal aid to impoverished and indigent parties. Mr. Kocevski has written on legal topics relating primarily to human rights law, access to justice, legal education, access to legal profession and the reforms in the judiciary relevant for the EU integration of Macedonia.


Olga Shepeleva is Senior Legal Officer at PILnet (Moscow, Russia).


Basir Nosirov is the Deputy Director of the Center for Legal Aid – Ministry of Justice of Tajikistan.


Idil Elveris, PHD graduated from Istanbul University School of Law in 1996. She obtained her LLM in 1998 from Tulane University. As a legal consultant and attorney, she practiced in jurisdictions such as New York, Kosovo, Britain and Istanbul. In 2003, she joined Istanbul Bilgi University and pioneered legal clinics in Turkey and established a pro bono clearing house at Istanbul Bilgi University. She obtained her PHD in 2012 from Istanbul Bilgi University School of Political Science. Her areas of interest and teaching include legal profession; law and politics; access to justice and corrections. She is a certified mediator and currently a visiting scholar at LSE European Institute.
Seda Kalem graduated from Bosphorus University Department of Sociology in 2000 (Istanbul). In 2003, she got her MA degree from the The New School For Social Research Department of Sociology (NY). In 2010, her PhD thesis titled Contested Meanings- Imagined Practices: Law at the Intersection of Mediation and Legal Profession was awarded “The Albert Salomon Memorial Award in Sociology” by the Graduate Faculty Department of Sociology. Since 2006, she has been teaching as an Assistant Professor at the Law Faculty of Istanbul Bilgi University. Her courses include Sociology of Law, Law and Society, Law and Politics, Access to Justice: Research and Policy and Social Transformations and Legal Profession, Social Science Research Methods in Legal Research. Kalem has also been an expert researcher at Istanbul Bilgi University Human Rights Law Research Center where she has conducted field studies on courts in Turkey particularly in reference to issues such as legal aid, lay experiences with the legal system, legal consciousness and access to justice. Kalem is the author and co-author of several books and articles on the judicial system in Turkey. Recently she has been studying on politics of the legal profession in Turkey, with a particular focus on Istanbul Bar Association, as well as on women judges from a feminist epistemological and methodological standpoint.


Oleksandr Deineko has been working in the Coordination Centre for Legal Aid Provision (Legal Aid Ukraine) since 2016, leading the International Cooperation Unit and ensuring the implementation of international human rights projects, as well as that the legal aid practices in Ukraine are kept up-to date in regards to the best international trends. Since 2019 he also holds the position of the Consultant on International and Administrative Affairs to the Commission for Expert Legal Analysis, a joint body of the Ukrainian Bar, Legal Aid Ukraine and civil society organisations aimed at researching and introducing neoteric quality control mechanisms to the legal aid system of Ukraine.Mr. Deineko holds the degrees of an MBA, an M. LL, an MIB and a B. Acc.
Oleksii Boniuk. An accomplished barrister since 2001 and a managing partner in “Boniuk and partners” law firm since April of 2016, Mr. Boniuk came to lead the legal aid system of Ukraine as the Director a.i. (later – Director) of the Coordination Centre for Legal Aid Provision on 14th June of 2017. From 1997 to 2000, Mr. Oleksii Boniuk has been working as a legal counsel and a chief legal counsel in several Ukrainian companies, eventually becoming the CEO of “JurEneregoConsulting” law firm on 23 May of 2001. From November of 2001 to September of 2002, Mr. Boniuk has been holding the post of a CEO in “INTA-Audit” auditing firm. On 23 September of 2002 he acquired the position of a Deputy CEO in “Industrial and financial consulting group” LLC that he held until 18 April of 2005. In 2015 Mr. Boniuk was an expert in the Council of Europe project “Immediate measures package for Ukraine”. During the Revolution of Dignity, Mr. Boniuk undertook representation of civil activists during criminal proceedings, filing a number of applications to the European Court of Human Rights as well. He holds a degree in Law from the Taras Shevchenko National University of Kyiv (1999).


Djamshid Turdaliev (LLM) is the Founding Partner and Attorney at Law of the Law Firm “My Lawyer” Law Firm.



Steven Gibens is Master of Laws and Master of Criminology. He has studied at the University of Antwerp and the Catholic University of Louvain. Since 1995 he has been member of the Antwerp Bar, first has a trainee, and since 1998 as a full member. Now he is a partner of the Law Firm Terecht CVBA. He is also a substitute justice of the Peace in Antwerp and is lecture at Karel de Grote-University college. In 1996 he was a part time researcher at the Catholic University of Louvain Department of Criminology examining the legal implications of the LinguaNet system in communicating information between law enforcement agencies in different countries.
From 1998 he has been a part time researcher at the University of Antwerp where he is studying the legal aid system in Belgium.

Bernard Hubeau is a full professor in Sociology and Sociology of Law at the Faculty of Law of the University of Antwerp since early 2008. He is a professor in Urban Planning Law (Master Course in the Law Faculty of the University of Antwerp) since early 2008. He lectured during 10 years at the Architecture Institute (Henry Vandevelde-Institute, Antwerp). He teaches “Sociology and Sociology of Law”, “Sociology of Law” and “Legal aspects of the relation Administration-Citizen”. He teaches “Legal Aspects of Social Work” at the Faculty of Social Sciences of the University of Antwerp. He also teaches “Sociology of Law” at the University of Brussels (Faculty of Law and Criminology). He was professor at the University of Utrecht (Netherlands) from 1991 to 1996 and Lecturer in a School for Architecture and a School of Police Studies. In the faculty of law of the University of Antwerp he is a member of the research groups “Law and Government”. His main research interests are: Housing Law and Urban Planning; Sociology of Law; Alternative Dispute Resolution, Mediation and Ombudsmen; General Principles of Good Administration; Fundamental Rights and Social Work. He’s the editor of a Handbook on Spatial and Urban Planning (2004 and 2011), a Code with comments on the legislation (yearly edition, fifth edition forthcoming), chief editor of a Book Collection on Spatial and Urban Planning, author of a Student book on urban planning (Spatial and Urban Planning for Beginners, fourth edition), chief editor of a Book Collection with practical books on urban planning topics (Praktijkreeks) and the editorial board of “Ruimte”. He was the editor in chief of a scientific review (TROS, Review on Spatial and Urban Planning Law) from 1994 to 2015. In 2012, the Spatial Planning Act had its 50th anniversary: two books were realized to commemorate this event. He’s editor in chief of a Legal Journal (Juristenkrant). The subject of this doctoral thesis (1993) was the right to housing and the consequences of multilevel governance on the position of the citizen on the housing market (“Housing Law from a Regional, Federal and Community Perspective”, Bruges, Die Keure, 1994: for this book the author obtained the “Prize of Administrative Sciences” in 1995). He is the author of a Code with comments on the housing legislation (yearly edition), chief editor of a Book Collection on Housing Law (every five years a book is published about recent developments in housing law, since the new Flemish Housing Code was voted; 1999, 2002, 2007, 2012). Hubeau also had the opportunity to deliver some policy reports on land use policy (1997) for the Flemish minister of Spatial Planning. He also is supervisor of research realized for the “Steunpunt Wonen” (Research Unit on Housing, 2010-2015), funded by the Flemish government on the transfer of some parts of housing law towards the regional level and an legislative evaluation of the regulation on private renting. For the period from 2016 to 2020 he’s the supervisor of the work package on the legal aspects of housing. He’s president of the board of a Social Housing Company and of the Flemish Housing Council. He’s a member of the Bureau of Integrity of the city of Antwerp. He is the former Ombudsman of the City of Antwerp (1996-1999) and of the Flemish Parliament (1999-2007). Hubeau is the research director at the University of Antwerp since 2008 and responsible for the research policy of the Law Faculty. From 2008 to 2015 he also was the research vice-dean and research director of the Law Faculty. He was the president of an interdisciplinary group of lawyers and planners between 1997 and 2005 (Commissie Juridisch-Planologische Dialoog): the debates and papers delivered two special editions of two journals on urban planning (TROS and Ruimte): one on Subsidiarity and one on Flexibility (1997). Bernard Hubeau is supervisor for several PhD-projects on the role of justice in society, the socio-legal aspects of the right to housing and specific fields like the role of the ombudsman. He also supervises of co-supervises four PhD-projects, embedded in the Renato Treves-network, a network on research into Law and Society with ten European Universities. He’s member of the Board and active member of an international scientific network on Law and Society (with a masters’ and PhD-program). He’s one of the partners in the INDIGO-project, funded by IWT/FWO (Innovating Spatial Development Planning by Differentiating Land Ownership and Governance (partners are: KULeuven, Harokopio University Athens, Studiegroep Omgeving en Research Group Government and Law University of Antwerp) (2015-2018).


Stefan Rutten. Since October 2007 professor Stefan Rutten is full-time appointed at The Faculty of Law of the University of Antwerp, first as an assistant professor and currently as an associate professor. Besides his activity as an academic he had the opportunity to gain also some practical experience as an attorney. He was allowed to combine his appointment with a membership of the Bar. Between 2007 and 2013 he was an Attorney at the Brussels Bar at the law firm Linklaters Llp. As from September 2013 he became a member of the Bar of the Province of Antwerp and joined the law firm Omegalaw, specialised in proceedings in front of the Supreme Court. Prof. Rutten conducts research in the fields of Civil Procedural Law, Alternative Dispute Resolution (in particular on Mediation and Consumer Dispute Resolution) and Legal Ethics. His research resulted in national and international peer reviewed publications in those three research fields. At the international level he was/is involved in two international projects related to Civil Procedure Law. As one of the applicants he obtained funding from an Action grant from the European Commission to support transnational projects on promoting the quality of the national justice systems (Justice Programme 2014-2020). Currently he is involved in a project sponsored by the Action grant of the European Commission to support transnational projects to promote judicial cooperation in civil and criminal matters. As a member of the International Working Group on the Legal Professions he participated actively in the conferences and projects organised within this Working Group (which inter alia resulted in an article published in the International journal of the legal profession). At the national level he became co-author of the leading monography on Belgian Civil Procedure Law [Handboek Gerechtelijk recht, 2016], was editor of a monography on Out-of-court Dispute Settlement [Conflictafhandeling buiten de rechtbank, 2019] and published an extensive (250 p.) overview of Belgian case law on Jurisdiction in the leading Belgian-Dutch Law Journal Tijdschrift voor Privaatrecht. He is / was a member of several PhD Commissions and is currently supervisor of two (and as from September 2019 three) PhD-students.


Yseult Marique is Senior Lecturer at the University of Essex (United Kingdom) and research associate at the FÖV Speyer (Germany). She is co-editor of Access to Justice: Beyond the Policies and Politics of Austerity (with Ellie Palmer, Tom Cornford, and Audrey Guinchard) (Hart / Bloomsbury: 2016). One of her main research interest focuses on the rule of law and its practical implementation in relation to issues of access in Western societies when resources are limited (such as access to justice, access to energy, access to administrative documents, access to public services, access to public participation etc.). Other research interests pertain to administrative enforcement and ethics of care in Western societies both today and in the past. She holds a law degree from the Université libre de Bruxelles (ULB), a postgraduate degree in law from the Vrije Universiteit Brussels (VUB) and a PhD from Cambridge University.
Marjolaine Roccati is Maître de conférences in private law in the University of Paris Nanterre since 2012. After having written her PhD on the role of national judge in the European judicial area (Bruylant, 2013), she has published various articles in the field of Justice and civil procedure (among which “Le renforcement de l’office du juge: analyse d’une réforme envisage”, Les Petites Affiches, 8 janvier 2019, n°6, pp. 5-15; “Evolution de la procédure européenne de règlement des petits litiges: vers davantage d’efficacité et d’accessibilité?”, Revue européenne de droit de la consommation, 2015, n°2, pp. 415-431; “Quelle place pour l’autonomie procédurale des États membres?”, Revue Internationale de Droit Economique, 2015, n°4, pp. 429-439). She has also recently co-authored a book on Alternative Dispute Resolution (together with Soazick Kerneis, Gilduin Davy and Soraya Amrani Mekki, “Les chimères de l’alternativité? Regards croisés sur les Modes Alternatifs de Règlement des Conflits” (Droit, Histoire, Anthropologie), Paris, Mare & Martin, 2018).
Anne-Sophie Chavent-Leclère. Maître de conférences HDR at the Université Jean Moulin Lyon 3, Director of Institut d’Etudes Judiciaires in Lyon and of the Master 2 sécurité intérieure, lawyer at the Lyon Bar. She is the author of many articles in relation to criminal justice, including “L’application concrète de la réforme de la justice pénale” (in la loi de réforme pour la justice, LexisNexis, Actualité, 2019) and “Halo sur la jurisprudence de la Chambre criminelle en matière de confiscations et saisies”, AJ pénal 2019, 8. She is also running the monthly updates on criminal procedure for the legal journal Procédures (Lexis-Nexis).


Matthias Kilian is Professor of Law at the Universität zu Köln. He is also Director of the Soldan Institute.


Andras Kadar is an attorney at law and Co-chair of the Hungarian Helsinki Committee (HHC), a human rights NGO focusing on – among others – access to justice, defence rights, law enforcement issues, asylum law and non-discrimination. Besides providing representation before domestic and international forums, including the European Court of Human Rights, he has been responsible for the HHC’s various research projects, trainings and advocacy activities. He was a member of the Independent Police Complaints Board, a civilian oversight body elected by and operating under the Hungarian Parliament, and is the Hungarian member of the European Network of Legal Experts in the Non-discrimination Field.


John McDaid is the Chief Executive of the Legal Aid Board in Ireland. Holding a degree in law, he qualified as a solicitor in 1988. He worked in private legal practice in Australia and Dublin before joining the Legal Aid Board in 1993 where he has continued to work since. He worked as a managing solicitor in a number of the Board’s law centres before taking up a senior management role on the operational side. He was appointed Chief Executive in December 2014. He holds a Masters of Science in Business Practice.
Andrew Field (M.A., M.Phil., PG Dip Bus Admin) is a Higher Executive Officer and is currently based in two of the Board’s units. He is part of the Strategy Unit which has responsibility for civil legal aid policy development and strategic research and he is also based in the Legal Services Unit which is the Board’s decision making function. He joined the Legal Aid Board in 2014 and has worked in several units in the Board since – Human Resources, Civil Operations, Legal Services and Strategy Unit. Mr Field graduated with a BA in Geography in 2004, an MA in Sustainable Development in 2005 and was conferred with an M.Phil in 2009 all from University College Cork. He obtained a Post Graduate Diploma from The Open University in business administration in 2018.
Ronan Deegan (B.A. LL.B. M.A. Barrister-at-Law) has been the Legal Aid Board’s Assistant Director, Strategy since May 2019, where he has responsibility for civil legal aid policy development and strategic research. He has worked in the Legal Aid Board since November 2006 in a variety of positions, having previously worked in the Civil Operations area for eight years. Prior to that, he worked in the Private Practitioner Centre, the Refugee Documentation Centre, and the Training Unit. Mr. Deegan graduated from University College Dublin in 2002 with a BA in History and Politics and obtained an MA in Politics from UCD in 2003. He later attended Dublin Institute of Technology (now Technological University Dublin) where he obtained an LLB in 2014. Mr Deegan was called to the Bar of Ireland in 2016.
John Scanlon is an Assistant Director and the Legal Aid Board’s Data Protection Officer. He joined the Board’s Refugee Documentation Centre in 2016 and has subsequently worked as the Board’s Research Manager in the Strategy Unit in 2019. He has a background in academic research and social and economic policy analysis.


Elisabetta Silvestri is Associate Professor of Italian Civil Procedure, Comparative Civil Procedure, and Arbitration, Mediation and Assisted Negotiation at the Department of Law, University of Pavia, Italy. At the same Department she is also Scientific Director of the postgraduate programs for the training of mediators and ADR professionals accredited by the Ministry of Justice. She has acted as Professor of Advanced Legal English at the Department of Law, University of Pavia and as Professor of Judicial Organization at the Faculty of Law, University of Trieste. Elisabetta Silvestri received her legal education at the (then) Faculty of Law, University of Pavia, where she earned her LL.B., and at Cornell Law School, Ithaca, United States, where she obtained her LL.M. She was also visiting Scholar at Yale Law School (New Haven, United States) and London School of Economics. She has been lecturing in many Italian and foreign University on a wide variety of subjects in the field of civil procedure and related matters, such as evidence, judicial organization, collective redress, and ADR. She has acted as National Reporter and invited speaker at conferences and congresses in Italy, as well as in various countries of the world. Since 2010 she is co-director of the annual seminar ‘Public and Private Justice’, organized by professors Alan Uzelac and Remco van Rhee and taking place in Dubrovnik, at the Inter-University Centre (IUC). She is Assistant Editor of the International Journal of Procedural Law and a member of the Editorial Boards of the Russian law journal Herald of the Civil Process and the Ukrainian law journal Access to Justice in Eastern Europe. Elisabetta Silvestri is a member of the working group on the subject ‘Duties and Obligations of the parties and their lawyers’ within the framework of the project ‘From Transnational Principles to EU Rules of Civil Procedure’ supported by the European Law Institute (ELI) and UNIDROIT (since 2014). She is also a member of the advisory board of the scientific project ‘Building EU Civil Justice (ERC-Consolidator Grant no. 726032) directed by professor Xandra Kramer of Erasmus University (Rotterdam, the Netherlands).
Federico Alessandro Goria is an Associate Professor of legal history at the Università del Piemonte Orientale (University of Eastern Piedmont), Dipartimento di Giurisprudenza e Scienze politiche, economiche e sociali (Department of Law and Political, Economic and Social Sciences). He teaches courses in the curriculum of the Master of Law, focusing in particular on the history of trade law and family law. He recently studied the history of legal aid in Italy and, in particular, the model of advocacy for the poor implemented in the Duchy of Savoy (later the Kingdom of Sardinia) from the XVth to the XIXth century. The “avvocatura dei poveri” combined the liberal assistance pro bono with a salaried staff model, provided by the supreme courts of the State with lawyers at the first step of their judiciary career. The results of this research were published in the book “L’Avvocatura dei poveri. Vicende del modello pubblico dal Piemonte all’Italia” Bologna, Il Mulino, 2017.
Livia Giuliani is Professor of Law at Università degli Studi di Pavia (Italy), Department of Jurisprudence. She is also Criminal Procedure Researcher at University of Trieste (Italy).


Jan Winczorek is researcher at Faculty of Law and Administration of University of Warsaw. He holds a PhD in law (2006), and MA degrees in sociology and law. Before 2016, he had been an advisor of many Polish public institutions on issues of access to justice, including the President of Poland, Ministry of Justice, Ministry of Labour and Social Affairs, National Council of the Judiciary, National Bar Association of Legal Advisors. Collaborates with INPRIS, a legal think-tank in Warsaw. His fields of interest include access to law, empirical studies of courts and conflict resolution and sociological theories of the legal system.
Maciej Kruk is PhD student at the Faculty of Law and Administration of the University of Warsaw. His scientific interests revolve around the influence of philosophy-related issues on the practice of law.
Kamila Marciniak is PhD student at the Faculty of Law and Administration of the University of Warsaw and advocates trainee. She combines academic research with a practice in the field of human rights and criminal law.


Carlos Manuel Gonçalves de Melo Marinho is judge of court of appeal, senior Expert on EU and International Judicial Cooperation and e-Justice, co-founder and former National Contact Point of the European Judicial Network in Civil and Commercial Matters, Ibero-American Judicial Network and Judicial Network of the Portuguese Speaking Countries, co-creator of the EU Judicial Atlas in Civil Matters, author of the first EU Web page on judicial cooperation in civil and commercial matters, co-creator of the first curricular training of judges and prosecutors on EU law, coordinator of working groups in Europe and in Central and South America, speaker on events of the European Commission, European Parliament, Council of Europe, Hague Conference on Private International Law, European Institute of Public Administration, Academy of European Law, European Judicial Training Network, EuroMed, EPO, WIPO, EUI and EUIPO, trainer of judges in Portugal, Macedonia, Spain, Italy, France, Germany, Croatia, Serbia, Bosnia, Ukraine, Bulgaria, Austria, Slovenia, Lithuania, Morocco, Algeria, Romania and Paraguay and, by virtual means, all over Europe, member and president of national and international juries, expert in EU missions in Ukraine, Bosnia, Serbia, Macedonia, Armenia, Croatia, Italy, Czech Republic, Morocco, Bulgaria, Romania, China and Philippines; alternate member of the Boards of Appeal Committee of the EPO, member of the EJTN and author of articles, studies, opinions and books.


Julen Fernández Conte is the Director of the Permanent Office of the Consejo General de la Abogacía Española to the European Union. Since 2001, he is responsible for the institutional representation of the Spanish legal profession in the EU. This includes the yearly outreach of the “Observatorio de Asistencia Jurídica Gratuita” for its twelve editions. At European level, he is a longstanding member and Information Officer at the Council of European Bars (CCBE). He also was involved in the hearings and consultations of the European Commission for both Directives on Cross border Civil and Criminal Legal Aid and as member of the EJN. He recently served as external expert evaluator for the European Commission’s Justice Programs and has lead or coordinated the implementation of more +20 EU funded projects. Currently, Julen sits as member of the Consultative Board of the HELP program of the Council of Europe and, in 2014, he was promoter of their Crystal Scales Award for the project “Online Legal Aid Management: Better Solutions for Citizen’s Rights”. At international level, Julen was actively involved in the negotiations for the Defense at the ICC. He served as member of the International Bar Association (IBA) Committee on Legal Aid & Pro bono and of the Union Internationale des Avocats as Deputy Chief Editor of the Juriste International and remains coeditor of “Abogacía Española”. Finally, he is member of several advocacy NGO’s, such as the Prison Litigation Network and author of many articles and speeches in national, European and international conferences.


David E. Zammit graduated with the degree of LL.D. from the University of Malta in 1993 and proceeded to read for the degree of Ph.D. in Legal Anthropology at the University of Durham (UK), graduating in 1998. He then completed a diploma course in tort law at the University of Rome. He is a full-time Senior Lecturer at the Faculty of Laws of the University of Malta and Executive Editor of the Mediterranean Journal of Human Rights. He has conducted anthropological field research in Maltese courts and legal offices and contributed various papers to scholarly conferences dealing with the interface between law and culture. His research interests span legal anthropology, tort law and the law of evidence.


Herman Schilperoort (13 may 1957, Netherlands) studied law at the University in Utrecht in the Netherlands. During his studies he worked as u volunteer in a Law Shop, runned by students. After finishing his studies in 1981 he worked as a public lawyer at one of the 19 Legal Aid Councils. In 1993 five regional Legal Aid Boards were founded in the Netherlands. He then became a member of the managementeam of the Legal Aid Board in Amsterdam. In Februari 2009 the five regional Boards in the Netherlands were merged into one national Legal Aid Board with five regional offices and one central office in Utrecht. From then on he works as head of the central Staff department and member / secretary of the Management Board.
Susanne Peters is a researcher at the Dutch Legal Aid Board. She has a PhD in social sciences. In 2004 she finished her thesis on ‘The social psychology of being better off than others”. For a couple of years she worked at the Research and Documentation Centre (WODC) of the Ministry of Justice. Since 2007 she has been working at the Legal Aid Board. Every year she co-writes the Legal Aid Monitor and the Monitor in the field of debt restructuring. Also she conducts additional research in the field of legal aid and debt restructuring.



Steve Hynes is a freelance writer and campaigner on access to justice and legal aid. He was the director of the charity Legal Action Group (LAG) from 2008 to March 2019. Prior to joining LAG Steve was the Director of the Law Centres Federation, the national organisation representing law centres in England and Wales. He is the author of Austerity Justice, ( published by LAG. This book describes the development of civil legal advice services in England and Wales, as well as the background to what became the Legal Aid Sentencing and Punishment of Offenders (LASPO) Act (2012). He is also co-author of The Justice Gap, a book on the legal aid system and access to justice. Steve founded the Low Commission which was established in October 2012. The Commission was chaired by Lord Colin Low of Dalston and published its report on access to advice and legal support in January 2014. Two follow-up reports were also published by the Commission in conjunction with LAG. Currently Steve continues to write on access to justice issues for publications including Legal Action magazine and the New Law Journal.


Colin Lancaster took up post as Chief Executive in September 2015. He joined SLAB in 1997 and was previously Director of Policy and Development where his responsibilities focused on improving the availability, quality and cost-effectiveness of publicly funded legal assistance, both civil and criminal. As Chief Executive, Colin is a member of the Scottish Government’s Justice Board which manages the strategic direction of the justice system in Scotland. He is also a member of the Scottish Civil Justice Council, the Evidence & Procedure Review Programme Board and the Non-Departmental Public Bodies Chief Executives Forum. Colin chairs the tri-partite Criminal Quality Assurance Committee, which oversees a peer-review based system for monitoring and improving the quality of criminal legal assistance services provided by solicitors.



Mostafa Haider is a Lecturer at the Law School of Curtin University. Mostafa completed his PhD in global law and politics at the University of Sydney and held a residential fellowship at Harvard Law School’s Institute for Global Law and Policy. He also holds an LLB (Hons) and LLM, both first class, from the University of Chittagong and an LLM with distinction from the School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London.
Mostafa’s research interests lie in international law, political economy, social movement and global governance. His research particularly seeks to insert the knowledge and power of ‘people’ – beyond citizens, experts and population – into international law narratives. Drawing on a series of interviews with poor women in rural Bangladesh, his doctoral thesis has explored how inequality as a global phenomenon gets regularized through a set of legal and normative techniques. He is currently working on two new projects, one on the bargaining power of weak actors in global value chains and another on the management of humanitarian crises in international law.
Mostafa has taught undergraduate courses in international law, private law, and jurisprudence. At Curtin, he teaches public international law and introductory units in tort and contract. He came to Curtin from Flinders University, where he coordinated introduction to torts (jointly with a colleague) and the Flinders law research seminar series. Formerly a Lecturer at BRAC Law School, he practiced briefly with the law firm of Dr Kamal Hossain & Associates in Dhaka and was admitted as an Advocate of the Supreme Court of Bangladesh.


Dema Lham is Senior Lecturer at the Jigme Singye Wangchuck School of Law (JSW Law/RIL) since 2015. Before joining RIL, she worked as a senior Legislative Officer at the National Assembly Secretariat. She received her BLS., LLB Degree from Government Law College, Mumbai University, India, in 2006 and her Postgraduate Diploma in National Law (PGDNL) from the Royal Institute of Management, Thimphu, in 2007. Dema received her Master of Laws in Criminal Law at the University of New South Wales (Australia) in June 2017.


Khlok Dara is a professor of law and politics at Pannasastra University of Cambodia and a researcher at its PhD and Master’s Program in public management and law. He serves as a member of Cambodian Human Rights Committee of Cambodia and Vice Chair of Permanent Secretariat of the Steering Committee for Legal and Judicial Reform. He received three Master’s degrees in Political Science in Cambodia, Public Management at Potsdam University in Germany, and International Economic and Business Law at Kyushu University in Japan. He is currently a PhD candidate in International Law at Southwest University of Political Science and Law in China. He is a researcher fellow for China-ASEAN Legal Research Center. He did a lot of policy and strategy development for legal and judicial reform for Cambodia and recently he develops legal aid policy for Cambodia.


Hongyao Wu is an outstanding senior professor of criminal procedure law and Chinese expert of legal aid research. He is one of the consultant researchers of Institute of Procuratorial Theory of the Supreme People’s Procuratorate and one of the first ten station-researchers of the Supreme People’s Court. He is also an adjunct professor of National Prosecutors College of P.R.C.
Professor Wu studied philosophy at the Faculty of Philosophy, Zhengzhou University (1992-1996) and criminal procedure law at the Post-graduate School, CUPL for his Masterʼs degree and Ph.D. degree (1996-1999, 1999-2002). Since 2002, as a full-time researcher at CUPL, he teaches and researches in the fields of criminal procedure law, evidence and criminal justice, with particular emphasis on philosophical, comparative and international perspectives. In the following years, as an elemental member, he joined several legislating activities of legal drafts, e.g. the draft of Uniform Evidence Law led by Prof. Wei Jiang in 2004; Model Code of Criminal Procedure law led by Prof. Weidong Chen in 2005; the Revision of Organic Law of the People’s Courts of the People’s Republic of China led by Prof. Chongyi Fan in 2005; the Expert Draft for Re-amendment to Criminal Procedural Law led by Prof. Guangzhong Chen in 2006. Now, he is also the Executive Chief Editor of Zhong Guo Su Song Fa Pan Jie (Journal of Procedural Law Cases), and Associate Chief-editor of Su Song Fa Xue Yan Jiu (Chinese Journal of Procedural Law).
In 2012, working with Mr. Lihua Tong, China’s Public Interest Law Leader, and professor Yongzhong Gu, an outstanding professor of law and criminal defense counsel, he founded the Criminal Legal Aid Research Center at CUPL. Besides running a consultation service hotline, a criminal legal aid website and representing some typical cases, the Criminal Legal Aid Researcher Center focuses on the policy and practice of the Procedure for Review of Death Sentences in the People’s Supreme Court of China. Two main projects of the Center was finished in past years: One is the Innocence Project which is the first legal aid project for indigent prisoners of murder cases in China. Another is the research on the Legal Aid System of Death Penalty Cases reviewed by the People’s Supreme Court.
19th January, 2018, National Institute of Legal Aid was established with the support of China University of Political Science and Law and MOJ and Professor Wu was appointed as the first dean of NILI. As the first think-tank institute on legal aid in China, NILA is committed to strengthen the academic research on basic theories, legislation policy and implementation problems, aiming at providing a solid theoretical foundation for the long-term development of legal aid system in China. Now, NILA is working closely with the Legal Aid Agency and National Legal Aid Center, the Ministry of Justice of China on the draft of the on-coming Legal Aid Law.


Neelu Mehra (Lead National Researcher / Primary Investigator) is an Assistant Professor of Law with teaching experience of almost fourteen years at the University School of Law and Legal Studies, Guru Gobind Singh Inderprastha University, Delhi, India. She has done her Ph.D. in Law from Kurukshetra University in 2003. Dr. Mehra’s areas of specialization are Property Law, Commercial laws, Gender Laws, and Criminology. She has presented many research papers in National and International forum, such as Harvard Medical College (USA), UCL (London), Toronto University (Canada), University of British Columbia (Canada), BESSH (Melbourne) on a variety of topics including, Access to Justice, Women, Third Gender, Property laws, and Cyber Crimes. Dr. Mehra is an author of many publications published by peer-reviewed legal and social science journals on Surrogacy laws, Women trafficking, Third gender issues, Cyber Crime, Probation laws, and best practices at prison administration. She serves on University administrative /advisory committees as a member of the Board of studies, Viva Coordinator, and a Nodal Officer for economically weaker section (EWS) of Government of NCT at Delhi. Dr. Mehra has served as a Coordinator of the National Youth Parliament sponsored by the Ministry of Parliamentary Affairs, Delhi, etc.
Kanwal DP Singh (Head Researcher) has a teaching and research experience of more than 17 years. She completed her Ph.D. from Jamia Millia Islamia University, New Delhi, in 2007. Her specialization is in areas of Taxation, Land Laws and Corporate laws & Law Poverty and Development. She joined the University School of Law and Legal Studies Guru Gobind Singh Inderprastha University, Delhi, as Professor in May 2013. She has two books to her credit, namely “ Legal control of Capital Market in India” and “Land laws which are acclaimed by law students in India. She has more than 38 published papers in National and International journals and many presented papers in National and International forums. Dr. Singh has long administrative experience, which involves of conduct of exams like CLAT, UGC (Net), etc. She is a BOS member in many universities like Gautam Budh University, Amity University, etc. She is also involved and on a panel of paper setter and evaluator for an organization like the Institute of Companies Secretaries, Centre for Policy Research, etc. She is invited frequently for talk shows, Judging moot court competitions and chairing the sessions at national and international conferences.
Renu Gosala (Researcher) holds a Ph.D. degree in International Politics from Jawaharlal Nehru University (JNU), Delhi, and has been teaching as an Adj. Assistant Professor of political science in New York (USA). Dr. Gosala’s research interests include human rights and comparative governments and politics. Her research interest and published work explore the causes and consequences of human rights violations, the justice system, and the rule of law; democracy and political institutions in South and Southeast Asia.
Konpal Preet Kaur (Student Researcher) completed BA (History Hons) from LSR college for women (University of Delhi) in 2014 and Mphil from Kellogg College, the University of Oxford, in 2017. She has interned with multiple agencies like the Institute of Maritime, History Maryland Historical Trust, Naval History, and Heritage command in the US along with Archaeological Survey of India. She has five research publications to her credit in interdisciplinary journals. The researcher is currently based in Toronto working as a freelancer.
Nitya Thakur (Student Researcher) is presently pursuing her Ph.D. in Intellectual Property Laws from Guru Gobind Singh Indraprastha University, New Delhi. She has completed her Master of Laws (LL.M.) from University College London with a specialization in Intellectual Property Laws. She has practiced civil and commercial litigation focusing primarily on Intellectual Property Laws and Telecommunication and Broadcasting laws. During her stint in academics as a Faculty at Symbiosis Law School, Noida, and KIIT School of Law, Bhubaneswar, she has taught advanced IP courses. Currently, she is pursuing a Ph.D. on “Registrability of Non-Traditional Trademarks: A Comparative Study of Trademark Regimes with Special Reference to India” under the guidance of Dr. Neelu Mehra, Asst. Prof, GGSIP University, Delhi.
Aditi Singh (Student Researcher) has completed her BA.LLB from New Law College, Bharati Vidyapeeth, Pune in the year 2011. She has done her LLM with a dual specialization in Criminal Law and Human Rights from Indian Law Institute, Delhi, in 2013. She worked as an Assistant Prof in Delhi Metropolitan Education, Noida, for five years. whose share of time went into this work. Currently, she is pursuing her full-time Ph.D. On “Law and Policy Governance relating to Reproductive Rights in India: An Impact Analysis” Under the guidance of Dr. Neelu Mehra, Asst. Prof. University School of Law and Legal Studies. GGSIP University, New Delhi.


Kristomo Constantinus is in charge of Legal Aid Implementation Program under Act 16/2011, especially in establishing implementing regulation, reimbursement system, monitoring, developing applications (web and mobile), case management system, paralegal empowerment. He is the founder of Legal Aid Information and Database System (TOP 99 Indonesia Public Service Innovation Award 2017 and 2018), Application for Public Legal Educators, Access to Justice Map, IOS/Android/Web Streaming Legal Smart Channel. He also has been a regular speaker in UN forums, international forums on Access to Justice, workshops and expert group meetings.


Tomoki Ikenaga has been an Attorney-at-Law since 1997 after graduation from Waseda University and worked as a researcher at the Japan Legal Support Center from 2006 until 2015, which is a public corporation providing both civil and criminal legal aid established with funding from the national government in 2006. He was the staff attorney of the Japan Federation of Bar Associations from 2005 until 2006 and a visiting scholar at the University of California, Berkeley from 2004 until 2005. He was a Deputy Secretary of the Japan Federation of Bar Associations Central Board on the Japan Legal Support Center from 2015 until 2018 and is currently a chairperson of the civil legal aid committee in the above Central Board on the Japan Legal Support Center.
Gotaro Ichiki has been an attorney-at-law since 1975 after graduation from Hitotsubashi University. He worked at the Japan Legal Support Center as the secretary general from 2006 to 2008, and the director of the Tokyo local office of the Japan Legal Support Center from 2014 to 2018.
Manabu Wagatsuma is Master’s Degree from the Hitotsubashi University (Japan) and Professor of Civil Procedure at Tokyo Metropolitan Law School (Japan). He is a civil mediator and judicial commissioner at Tokyo County Court and has done extensive research on comparative legal aid costs and funding.
Tetsuo Oishi is a Director of Japan Association for Access to Justice. He was Secretary of Japan Legal Aid Association from 2000 to 2007, and Head of Audit Office of Japan Legal Support Center from 2007 to 2016.
Takashi Sagawa is currently a Director of Japan Association for Access to Justice. He was the Director of Tokyo local office of Japan Legal Aid Association from 1986 to 2006. He was Deputy Secretary General from 2006 to 2010, Secretary General from 2011 to 2013 and Head of Research Center from 2014 to 2017 at Japan Legal Support Center.
Wakaba Hara has been an attorney-at-law since 1990. Graduate of Keio University (LLB, 1988) and School of law of Columbia University (LL.M 1993). Former Director of the headquarters of the Japan Legal Support Center (Houterasu) (2012-2013). Former Long-term Expert of the Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA) in charge of promoting Access to Justice in Republic of Côte d’Ivore (2014-2017). Currently is a member of International Legal Cooperation Center of Japan Federation of Bar Association, serving Chief of the project team for the JICA training course of promoting Access to Justice.
Keita Abe has been working in the legal aid field since 1993 and a researcher of Japan Legal Support Center since 2014. He has held various senior positions at JLSC such as Director of Civil Legal Aid Division, Program Director of Tokyo Office, Executive Secretary of Osaka Office and Director of IT Development. Prior to joining the JLSC in 2006, he had been a researcher and Program Director of Japan Legal Aid Association.


Ounkham Tamong. I has been worked at Ministry of Justice since 2013, after graduation from Faculty of Law and Political Science of the University of Laos, and I am a law technique staff at the Law Dissemination Department of the Ministry of Justice from 2013 until now.
Soubun Bounkham. I have been working at Ministry of Justice of Laos, in Justice System Promotion Department for 6 years. I graduated from National University of Laos majoring in English and another Business Administration in a college. I am currently a deputy head of division responsible as secretary to Director General, financing and budgeting, be trainer for trainee for inter-country adoption, be a members of Village Dispute Solution Decree Draft committee which is now on the process of developing, Legal Aid Decree Drafting committee which is now enter into force, doing English – Lao – English translation when meeting with counterparts. Even my current professional does not math to the tasks I have been doing so, I have worked very close to many law experts and professors in many areas mentioned above. I visited many countries for trainings related to law enforcement likely China, New Zealand and Singapore. I am taking law course this year due to demanding of work.


Denis de Castro Halis is Masters Degree in Law and Sociology from the Fluminense Federal University (UFF – Brazil) and Professor of Law at the University of Macau.


Harleen Kaur (Leena). With more than 13 years experience as a dedicated litigator in the areas of tort, intellectual property, commercial and civil matters, Leena as she is popularly known, is skilled in a diverse range of practice areas. Leveraging on her experience, she is also equally able to provide corporate drafting services. Leena is currently the Chair of the Kuala Lumpur Bar, which has over 8,000 members. Leena is regularly consulted in high value, urgent and complex litigation and drafting matters. However, she is generally available to only a select few clients. This is to ensure quality and efficient service. In high stakes litigation, speed and confidentially cannot be overated. As such, clients do not deal with any intermediaries. Leena has been elected/appointed to several positions, such as: (1) Bar Council Kuala Lumpur Legal Aid Centre – Chairperson (2012 – 2015); (2) Kuala Lumber Bar Committee – Member (2012 to 2016); (3) Kuala Lumpur Bar Civil Practice Committee – Chairperson (2013 to 2015); (4) National Legal Aid Foundation [YBGK] – Trainer (2012 to present); (5) UNHCR (Refugees) / Tenaganita (Migrants) / AWAM & WAO (Women’s Welfare) / SIS (Muslim Women & Syariah Law) – Project Head (2016 to present); (6) Victim Support Programme – Head (2018).


Aishath Sheena Mohamed. Formerly a litigation lawyer and currently serving at the Legal Affairs Department at the President’s Office of Maldives, Ms. Aishath Sheena Mohamed has been engaged in training programs, facilitated by the Maldives Law Institute, aimed towards legal awareness.
During Ms. Mohamed’s time as a practicing attorney, she took on a number of pro bono cases, where she represented, in various capacities, marginalized people whose fundamental rights were at stake. Ms. Mohamed has remained consistent in advocating for justice sector reforms, which she believes to be pre-requisites for justice to be accessible for everyone in the society.
Ms. Mohamed aims to specialize in human rights law and is passionate about research and reforms on the subject.
Fathmath Yasmeen Shamaal is a licensed attorney, admitted to practice in the Republic of Maldives in 2018. Ms. Shamaal graduated from the University of Surrey with an LLB(hons) in 2017, and since then, she has been working in private practice in Maldives. She is currently an Associate at Salih, Shihab and Co LLP, where her main area of interest is medical law.
Ms. Shamaal is a Director of the Maldives Law Institute, and has been an active member of the NGO since 2017. She has organized several projects during her tenure there. Most notably, Ms. Shamaal is the project coordinator for the ‘Practical Legal Training’ programme, carried out with UNDP, where the organizations aim to train and empower community paralegals to ensure access to the legal system in the geographically remote islands of Maldives. She has also travelled to the islands as part of the programme, and conducted training workshops on various fields of law.
Maryam Manal Shihab graduated from the University of Queensland, Australia, with an LLB (Hons.), in 2009, and attained a Post Graduate Diploma in Legal Practice from the Queensland University of Technology, Australia in 2010. She is a registered solicitor at the Supreme Court of Queensland, Australia and a registered attorney in the Maldives.
After completing her studies, Ms. Shihab worked for an insurance litigation firm, HBM Lawyers, in Australia before returning to the Maldives where she joined the Ministry of Economic Development as the Legal Advisor to the Minister of Economic Development. Ms. Shihab subsequently worked at Dhivehi Raajjeyge Gulhun PLC, following which she joined the Maldivian law firm Suood & Anwar LLP, as a senior associate, in September 2013. She was appointed as a partner at the firm in early 2015, and she worked there until the end of 2017, where her primary focus of work was corporate law, employment law and tourism real estate.
In early 2018, Ms. Shihab went on to establish Salih, Shihab & Co., a law firm specializing in corporate and commercial practice.
She has been a member of the Maldives Law Institute since 2012, and currently serves on the Institute’s executive board. Ms. Shihab is also the author of the first comprehensive text on employment law in the Maldives, titled ‘Maldives Employment Law – With Emphasis on Private Sector Employment’, and published by the Maldives Law Institute in 2017.


Batbold Amarsanaa (LL.D, Nagoya) is Chair of Department of Private Law, National University of Mongolia School of Law. Besides tenure at the University, Dr. Amarsanaa currently holds and held in the past number of government appointments such as Administrative Law Judge/Member of Supervisory Board of the Financial Regulatory Commission (appointment by the Parliament of Mongolia), Member, Judicial Qualifications Commission, General Council of Courts of Mongolia and Advisor on Legal Policy to the Minister of Mining of Mongolia. He advised on various Mongolian law issues to foreign and domestic law firms which include one of top 5 law firms in the world. He is also an arbitrator of the Mongolian National Arbitration Center since 2010. He has published and co-authored numerous books and articles in Mongolian and/or English in the areas of Mongolian legal system, corporate law and governance, comparative legal studies. His representative publications include Chapter on Mongolia, in OXFORD HANDBOOK OF CONSTITUTIONAL LAW IN ASIA, eds. DavidS.Law, Holning Lau & Alex Schwartz, Oxford University Press (forthcoming in 2019 or 2020); Law and Policy on Natural Resources in Mongolia, in EMERGING ISSUES IN SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT-INTERNATIONAL TRADE LAW AND POLICY RELATING TO NATURAL RESOURCES, ENERGY AND THE ENVIRONMENT, eds. Mitsuo Matsushita, Thomas J. Schoenbaum, Springer, (2016); The fledgling courts and adjudication system in Mongolia, in ASIAN COURTS IN CONTEXT (Chapter 9), ed. Jiunn-rong Yeh, Wen-Chen Chang, Cambridge University Press, 2014 (English); COMPARATIVE LEGAL STUDIES, textbook 2nd edition, 250 pages, 2014 (in Mongolian); S. NARANGEREL, LEGAL SYSTEM OF MONGOLIA, (co-editor of English edition), 246 pages, 2004, Chapter on Mongolia, in DIRECT DEMOCRACY IN ASIA: A REFERENCE GUIDE TO THE LEGISLATIONS AND PRACTICES, ed. Jau-Yuan Hwang, 2006 (TAIWAN). Dr. Amarsanaa also published articles in law journals in Mongolia and made presentations for conferences held in Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia, Vancouver, Canada, Nagoya, Japan, Seoul and Pohang, Korea, Taipei, Taiwan and Cambridge, UK. He is Editorial member of Law Review of the National University of Mongolia, and Asian Journal of Comparative Law published by Cambridge University Press.
Erdenebulgan Juujaa is Dean and Professor of Law of the National University of Mongolia School of Law. Prof. Dr. Erdenebulgan specializes in and practices criminal law and teaches the same subject. Prior to serving a Dean of the National University of Mongolia School of Law, he has been teaching at the same school over quarter of century. He has conducted and led numerous research works including research on past and present Criminal Codes in Mongolia. He also spoke in number of international and domestic conferences and seminars. Prof. Dr. Erdenebulgan holds an LL.M and Ph.D in Law degree from the National University of Mongolia. His most recent publication is Criminal law of Mongolia: concept, tradition and lessons (Монгол Улсын Эрүүгийн эрх зүй: үзэл баримтлал, уламжлал, сургамж) (2019).
Khunan Jargalsaikhan, Master of State and Law Science, is present President of the Mongolian Bar Association (MBA). Prior to his election in 2017, he served as Head of Foreign Relations and Cooperation division of MBA. Mr. Khunan specializes in human rights and judiciary, and began his career at a Judicial Reform Project in 2002 before joining the Ministry of Justice and Home Affairs of Mongolia. In 2007 he was appointed as National Project Manager of UNDP Access to Justice and Human Rights project after which he was also appointed as National Project Manager of UNDP Overcoming Poverty through Legal Empowerment project in 2011 and served until the completion of the project in 2013. Later Mr. Khunan worked as National Consultant of Legal Empowerment Project at the Open Society Forum before joining MBA. He has conducted and led numerous research works including research on judicial independence, appointment of judges, application of international human rights treaties at courts, access to justice, mechanism of legal aid delivery, legal empowerment and others. Mr. Khunan holds an L.L.M degree from Eotvos Lorand University of Science, Faculty of State and Law, Hungary.


Nir Bahadur Pakhren is an emerging lawyer of Nepal. He has been working in legal sector for 5 years and has 2 years of experience in teaching. He is currently working as legal officer at Nepal Reinsurance Company Ltd. The key area of his expertise is legal aid, public interest and international law. He is member of Patan High Court Bar Association and legal advisor of Panchpokhari Rural Municipality, Yangri Academic Center and Pemathang Unified Housing. He is also associated with Rural Scholarship Program, NGO. He has attended the national/international conferences and training conducted by University College London, St. Gallen University, The Indian Society of International Law, Nepal Bar Association, Nepal Council of Arbitration and Nepal Reinsurance Company Ltd. He has published and presented research papers on law relating to benefit sharing to local people at the SAARC Law Conclave on trans-boundary water and dispute settlement organized by Indian Institute of Legal Studies and Role of Compliance officer at the international conference on insurance law and regulation: global perspective organized by ICFAI Law School in association with New Castle Law School, Australia. His Thesis for LL.B & LL.M is Benefit Sharing to Local People and Foreign Investment Protection under the Energy Charter Treaty respectively.


Ali Baqar Najafi. Born on 15th September, 1963 at Lahore, completed basic qualification from Govt. Muslim Model High School, Urdu Bazar, Lahore, did his B.Sc. from the Government College, Lahore.Joined the Punjab University Law College Lahore and obtained LL.B Degree in 1989. Joined the legal profession in the same year at Lahore and after completion of apprenticeship joined his father, Late Ali Huzoor Najafi, Advocate Supreme Court, enrolled as an Advocate of High Courts in 1990 and subsequently as an Advocate of Supreme Court of Pakistan. Taught in Punjab University Law College Lahore for 12 years and other Private Law Colleges for 18 years and remained as Internal & External Examiner Punjab University Lahore for a long time. During this time he taught Constitutional Law, International Law, Islamic Law, Land Laws and Minor Acts. Remained as Editor of Law Page, The News and also contributed legal & other law related articles in Magazines and Newspapers. During the course of legal profession career conducted a large number of cases before the Lower Courts, Federal Shariat Court, High Court and Hon?ble Supreme Court of Pakistan.
Conducted more than 1000 cases including some reported judgments during 20 years standing in profession at Bar, on the sides of Constitution, Civil, Criminal, Corporate, Banking, Customs, Narcotics, Anti-Corruption, Labour, Immigration, and Islamic Laws including PrivateInternational Law. Also conducted the cases of public interest litigation and human rights etc. He participated and represented in many Law Conferences, Peace Conferences, Seminars etc. and read research papers.Since his elevation as a Judge of Lahore High Court, Lahore on 16thApril, 2012, he decided more than eighteen thousand cases, in Criminal, Civil, Constitutional, Human Rights, NAB, Banking and Company, Anti-Corruption, Narcotics, Murder References, Family, Rent, Labour jurisdiction. He worked at principal seat and at its all benches, Multan, Rawalpindi, Bahawalpur. Also conducted a judicial inquiry on the incident of Model Town, Lahore (June, 17, 2014) in which fourteen persons lost their lives. He attended the workshop at South Africa Legal Aidat the Legal Aid Center Johannesburg, on 23rdJanuary, 2017 and also attended Colloquium on “Integrating Environmental Law Training” in Johannesburg, South Africa from 25 January, 2017 to 27thJanuary, 2017, attended the ILAG Conference in Johannesburg, South Africa in 2017, attended 8th Water Forum in Brasilia, Brazil in 2018. He had also visited U.K, France, Germany, U.S.A, Iran, Iraq and Saudi Arabia.


Persida V. Rueda-Acosta, DSD, Chief Public Attorney and recipient of the Lingkod Bayan Award (Highest Presidential Award for Outstanding Public Service) is the 4th Placer in the 1989 Bar Examinations. She is a Doctor of Social Development graduate (GWA 1.20) from the University of the Philippines, Diliman, Quezon City, and has completed the Senior Executive Fellows Program at the Harvard Kennedy School, Massachusetts, U.S.A. She is an Asian Public Intellectuals (API) Senior Fellow. She is also a Fellow of the Salzburg Global Seminar and the U.S.A. International Visitor (IV) Program. She acquired a Certificate in Public Financial Management from the Executive Education Program of the Harvard Kennedy School, Massachusetts, and a Professional Certificate in International Management and Leadership from the International Centre for Parliamentary Studies (ICPS) in London. As a recognized Expert in Legal Aid by the United Nations, she has lectured on this field and related topics in international conferences. The UN, through the UNODC, acknowledged her comments on the draft of the 2017 copyrighted work, “Model Law on Legal Aid in Criminal Justice Systems with Commentaries”. The UNODC and the UNDP quoted her insights on legal aid in the 2016 copyrighted piece, “Global Study on Legal Aid Global Report”.


Eugene Tan is Associate Professor of Law at the Singapore Management University (SMU).


Kim Jung-sik is currently working for the planning department of the planning and coordination office of the headquarters of the Korea Legal Aid Corporation (KLAC).


Yu-Shan Chang is a researcher at the Legal Aid Foundation (LAF) in Taiwan. She joined the LAF in 2017 and has been deeply involved in planning and undertaking research for better management, policy making and service innovation. She has a keen interest in conducting empirical and comparative studies on legal aid systems, access to justice, the legal profession and integrated legal services. She also applies interdisciplinary knowledge and methodology in her research. Prior to joining the LAF, Yu-Shan practiced law in Taiwan and participated in legal aid work in her early career. She then studied and obtained her LLM and PhD degrees at University College London (UCL). Her PhD project explores and compares the mechanisms and rationale for integrated publicly funded legal services in England and Wales, Australia and Taiwan. She also had volunteered and worked in a few not-for-profit and advice agencies, supporting ethnic minorities and socially disadvantaged groups both in Taiwan and the UK. These experiences have greatly contributed to her current research work at the LAF.


Namtaee Meeboonsalang is the Provicial Chief Public Prosecutor of the Kanchanaburi Province (Office of the Attorney General – Department of People’ Rights Protection and Legal Aid). He is Science Juris Doctor from the Latrobe University Melbourne (Australia), Master of Criminal Justice from the West Texas A&M University (USA) and Master of Law from the Chulalongkorn University (Thailand).


Minh Nguyen is the Director General of the Vietnam Legal Aid (National Legal Aid Agency – Ministry of Justice of Vietnam).



Simon Rice is a Professor of Law at the University of Sydney where he teaches law reform, law and social justice, and legal ethics, and is a lawyer on the volunteer roster at Redfern Legal Centre. Simon has worked at, managed and consulted to a number of community legal centres in Australia, and has researched and written on legal aid and access to justice. He has been a board member of New South Wales (NSW) Legal Aid, director of the NSW Law and Justice Foundation, and chair of the Australian Capital Territory Law Reform Advisory Council. As an independent consultant he has reviewed the NSW and national public legal service funding programs. He is a member of the International Legal Aid Group, and of the of the Research Committe on Sociology of Law’s International Working Group on the Legal Professions. His co-authored publications include Australian Anti-Discrimination and Equal Opportunity Law, and The International Law of Human Rights. In 2002 Simon was awarded a medal in the Order of Australia for legal services to the economically and socially disadvantaged.


Andrew Harrington. Access to Justice Specialist, Rule of Law, Access to Justice and Security.
Originally from Ottawa, Canada, Andrew Harrington is the United Nations Development Programme’s Access to Justice, Rule of Law and Human Rights Programme Manager/technical specialistin the Pacific Office in Fiji.
Andrew has spent most of the past 15 years working internationallyon access to justice-related programming, bringing extensive justice experience in Canada, the United States, Netherlands, Kenya, South Sudan, Honduras, Mozambique, Timor-Leste, the Federated States of Micronesia, Western Samoa, Solomon Islands, Vanuatu, Tonga, and now Fiji.
As a Canadian-trained lawyer, he brings diverse legal experience, including private sector, government, international NGOs, and extensive experience with the UN system in with UNDP and UNODC. Andrew’s work on justice, security and human rights includes technical positions in diverse legal jurisdictions around the globe, including both common law and civil law jurisdictions. He has worked in external technical advisory roles for government, embedded in internal expert advisory positions with government, and managed external justice programming. He brings particular expertise in the interface between formal and so-called traditional justice system, domestic violence and trafficking in persons (led the consultation and drafting process for the 2017 Law to Prevent and Combat Trafficking in Persons, Timor-Leste – Lei No. 03/2017 – Lei da Prevenção e Luta contra o Tráfico de Pessoas e Quarta Alteração ao Código Penal). His last posting was with IOM in Timor-Leste where hemanaged a portfolio of projects, including counter-trafficking in persons, and led the IOM mission in Timor-Leste as Chief of Mission.
Presently with UNDP, Andrew has a regional justice advisory remit covering 14 Pacific Islands, and is managing a portfolio of projects relating to access to justice, rule of law and human rights. Specifically in Fiji, Andrew is working with the Fiji Legal Aid Commission in 3 separate projects entailing legal aid awareness raising and delivery to remote rural and maritimeareas under Project REACH, supporting an early access to justice pilot initiative –the First Hour Procedure–and supporting institutional strengthening under the Fiji Access to Justice Project.
Shahin Rafique Ali joined the Legal Aid Commission in Fiji in March 2004. He is the longest serving employee and has served the Commission in various capacities. He was appointed as the Acting Director in 2016 and holds the substantive post of Business Operations Manager and Secretary of the Legal Aid Board.
He has over 10 years of management and administration experience and is also a Barrister and Solicitor. He is passionate about the work the Commission does and feels privileged that he has the opportunity to serve the most disadvantaged and marginalised members of society through his work. He truly believes in “promoting greater access to justice for all Fijians especially those who are socially and economically disadvantaged.


Bridgette Toy-Cronin completed a LLB(Hons) and BA at the University of Auckland, an LLM at Harvard University, and PhD at the University of Otago. Her doctoral thesis examined self-representation by litigants in the New Zealand civil courts. Bridgette is Director of the University of Otago Legal Issues Centre, a centre which undertakes research on access to justice with the goal of working towards a justice system that is accessible, affordable, efficient, fair and just for all New Zealanders. She is also a Senior Lecturer in the University of Otago Faculty of Law teaching on access to justice and the legal profession. Her research has an empirical focus, investigating access to justice, the legal profession, judging, dispute resolution, and civil procedure.
Allie Cunninghame was a Professional Practice Fellow at the UOLIC until April 2020, when she was appointed as a coroner, sitting in Dunedin. Allie has 10 years’ experience as a litigator in a large New Zealand firm, focused mainly on insurance and insolvency litigation, and health and safety law. Allie is interested in access to justice, change and innovation within the legal profession, and diversity. At the UOLIC Allie led projects investigating areas of innovation and reform to make legal services more efficient and cost effective, and therefore more accessible. She holds a BA(Hons) in English and an LLB from the University of Otago, and was admitted as a Barrister and Solicitor of the High Court of New Zealand in 2008.
Bridget Irvine was formerly a UOLIC Postdoctoral Fellow until becoming a prosecutor at the New Zealand Ministry for Primary Industries in late 2019. Bridget’s research interests include access to justice, courtroom procedures, quality of legal evidence, and legal decision-making processes. She studied law and psychology at the University of Otago, and completed her PhD in psychology in 2016. Bridget is strongly interested in applied research, including the harnessing of social science to benefit the legal profession. Her PhD research investigated the circumstances under which a brief ‘preparation for court’ intervention could help children accurately respond to cross-examination questions in the courtroom.
David Turner is Professional Practice Fellow, University of Otago Legal Issues Centre, and currently is exploring ways to improve access to good legal information to support people in their pathways to justice. He is developing a national hub to support public benefit providers of online legal information. David holds a BA (Hons) in History and an LLB from the University of Otago. He worked in professional regulation for over 10 years, first at the New Zealand Institute of Chartered Accountants, and then at Singapore’s Accounting and Corporate Regulatory Authority. He joined the Legal Issues Centre in January 2019.


Kiribati | Marshall Islands | Micronesia | Nauru | New Caledonia | Palau | Papua New Guinea | Samoa | Solomon Islands | Tonga | Tuvalu | Vanuatu

Donald Paterson (Lead Researcher) was born and schooled in New Zealand, completing conjoint BA/LLB and LLM degrees at Victoria University of Wellington, and a further LLM degree, and a JSD degree at Yale Law School in the USA. After a short period in practice, he taught in the law faculties of Victoria University of Wellington and Otago University, and then served as legal counsel to New Zealand Ombudsmen. Don was appointed as professor of public administration at USP Laucala Campus in 1979, and later became head of the school of social and economic development, and later still, deputy vice chancellor of USP. In 1985 he was appointed professor of law and director of the Pacific Law Unit of USP, which was established in Vanuatu. When the department of law was established in 1994, he continued as professor of law until retirement in 1997. Don was appointed emeritus professor of law in 1997, and maintains an active interest in teaching in the undergraduate and postgraduate law programs, as well as being involved in legal consultancies in the USP region.
His publications include Corrin and Paterson, Introduction to South Pacific Law (4th ed, 2017); Farran and Paterson, South Pacific Property Law (2004); Paterson and Farran, South Pacific Island Land Systems (in press).



Stephanie Laulhe Shaelou (Lead National Researcher) has lectured, researched, supervised, transferred knowledge and run externally funded projects in several universities throughout Europe including Cyprus and the UK for the past 15 years. She is currently Professor of European Law and Reform and Head of the School of Law of the University of Central Lancashire in Cyprus (UCLan Cyprus). She supervises numerous LLM dissertations and PhDs in fields related to her own research including on the financial crisis, migration crisis, EU Citizenship, socio-economic rights in times of crisis, Brexit, privacy and other current issues in EU law. She is a certified Mediator as well as a Data Protection Officer and is very active in the organisation and delivery of CPD courses at the School of Law ( She belongs to networks of academic or professional experts at the national and EU level, is an expert of the European Commission and its agencies, and currently participates to the Horizon 2020 Sherpa project looking at smart information systems and human rights ( She has been a legal expert for the Legal Services of the Republic of Cyprus assisting the Commission of Inquiry on the collapse of the cooperative bank (2018-19). She is the Founding Member and Director of the non-profit organisation ICLAIM (Interdisciplinary Centre for Law, Alternative and Innovative Methods) which is used as a social enterprise vehicle for social and community projects having an impact on the society (see View her full academic profile at
Andrea Manoli is an Associate Lecturer at the School of Law, University of Central Lancashire, Cyprus Campus (UCLan Cyprus) and the Research Fellow of the Jean Monnet Module on European Union Law and Governance in Populist Times, School of Law, UCLan Cyprus ( She is in the final stages of her PhD in Law at the University of Central Lancashire (Lancashire, UK- expected submission December 2020). Her PhD focuses on the lack of children protection within the different de facto and de jure administrative jurisdiction in the Island of Cyprus, with a special reference to children victims of sexual exploitation. Andrea holds an LLM in International Commercial law, MA in Security and Diplomacy, TEFL and she is a Certified Arbitrator. She is also a Research Scholar for the non-profit organisation ICLAIM (Interdisciplinary Centre for Law, Alternative and Innovative Methods), which is used as a social enterprise vehicle for social and community projects having an impact on the society (see She is a non-practising member of the Cyprus Bar Association.
Nasia Hadjigeorgiou is an Assistant Professor in Human Rights and Transitional Justice at the University of Central Lancashire Cyprus, where she is teaching, or has taught, among others, Human Rights, Public International Law, Public Law, Criminal Law and Peacebuilding and the Law. She holds an LLB with First Class Honours from University College London (2006-2009), an LLM from the University of Cambridge (2009-2010) and a PhD from King’s College London (2011-2015). A development of her PhD thesis, which is forthcoming with Hart Publishing in January 2020 as a monograph, is entitled ‘Protecting Human Rights and Building Peace in Post-violence Societies: An Underexplored Relationship’ and focuses on the protection of human rights in Cyprus, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Northern Ireland and South Africa. She is the editor of an edited book entitled ‘Identity, Belonging and Human Rights’ and has published a range of peer-reviewed articles and book chapters in the area of human rights in Cyprus and elsewhere, in both Greek and English. Finally, she has presented at conferences at the Universities of Oxford, Cambridge, the London School of Economics, King’s College London, Nottingham, Haifa, Tel-Aviv, Copenhagen, Cyprus and Ghent. Dr Hadjigeorgiou has been awarded the Graduate School Studentship from King’s College London (2011-2014), the Leventis Scholarship for academic excellence and research potential (2012-2014) and the Cyprus State Scholarship for academic excellence (2009-2010).
Natalie Alkiviadou is a Lecturer in European Union Law and Human Rights. Her research expertise lies in human rights, international and European law with a focus on the legal regulation of the far-right as well as particular aspects of the far-right to include online and offline hate speech, the regulation of internet hate and hate crime. Her monograph ‘The Far-Right in International and European Law’ was published by Routledge in May 2019 and her monograph ‘Legal Challenges to the Far-Right: Lessons from England and Wales’ will be published by Routledge in December 2019.
Nadia Kornioti is a lawyer, holding an LLB from the University of Leicester (UK) and an LLM in Public International Law from University College London (UK). She is currently a PhD candidate and an Associate Lecturer at the University of Central Lancashire (Cyprus Campus). She has previous work experience in policy and advocacy with a number of international, regional and Cypriot institutions. Since working closely with vulnerable groups of people, primarily in the area of Migration and Asylum, she has developed an academic and empirical interest in Access to Justice in Cyprus and globally.
Despina Christofi is a Lecturer in International Commercial Arbitration and Investment Law in UCLan Cyprus. She holds a PhD in Law (University of Central Lancashire, 2018), an LLM in International Commercial Law (University of Glasgow, 2014) and an LLB (Hons) (University of Leicester, 2013). Her research interests evolve around EU economic and financial governance in times of crisis, European Banking Union, banking supervision and regulation, harmonization of Private International law in the EU, Alternative Dispute Resolution methods and International Investment Arbitration. During 2014-2017, she was a Research Assistant, Jean Monnet Module running at the Law School of UCLan Cyprus, ‘The Law of Financial and Economic Governance in the EU’ (FecoGov). Among the modules she teaches on the LLB and LLM are Banking and Financial Services Regulation, Law of International Financial Transactions, Private International Law, International Commercial Litigation, International Commercial Arbitration, International Commercial Mediation and Commercial Law. In September 2018, she successfully completed the UCLan Civil and Commercial Mediation training Course, which is a registered Civil/ Commercial Mediation Training Course (CMC). Furthermore, she is the administrator of the delivery of Continuous Professional Development courses organised by the School of Law, UCLan Cyprus. Finally, she has been actively involved in giving expert legal opinions in EU financial crisis law and banking law for Cypriot law firms and legal authoritie.
Demetra Lozou is a Lecturer in International Law and Legal Skills at the University of Central Lancashire, Cyprus. She teaches Lawyers’ Skills and Personal Development, Legal Research and Reasoning Skills, An Introduction to War Crimes Trials, Foundations of English and Cypriot Law, Legal System on the LLB and International Criminal Law and Security and Transnational Regulation of Terrorism on the LLM. Demetra is also a licenced legal professional. She was admitted to the Cyprus Bar Association in 2008.
Demetra holds an LLB (Hons) from the University of Bristol, an LLM in International Law from the University of Edinburgh and a PhD in Law from the School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London. In her doctoral thesis, she explored the establishment and early jurisprudence of the International Criminal Court, focusing on the substantive law-making potential of the Court. Her main areas of expertise are international criminal law, international humanitarian law and human rights law. As a practising lawyer, Demetra specialises in corporate law, family law, and migration.
In addition to her professional experience as a practising lawyer, Demetra has also worked for the International Criminal Court (Visiting Professional), the European Commission (Short-Term Election Observer) and Aegis Trust (Banyan SOAS Advocate). Currently, she a Contributor to the online database ‘Oxford International Organizations’ (Oxford University Press). At the same time, Demetra is also a Post-Doctoral Research Associate at SOAS.
Klearchos A. Kyriakides was born in London and educated at the Universities of Birmingham (where he earned an LLB Law and Politics Degree), Cambridge (where he earned an MPhil Degree in International Relations plus a PhD Degree in History) and Westminster (where he completed his postgraduate legal studies). In 2003, he qualified as a solicitor of the senior courts of England and Wales and thereafter practised law in private practice in London until 2007. From 2004 until 2015, he was a Senior Lecturer in the School of Law of the University of Hertfordshire. Since 2006, he has served as an Executive Committee Member of the West London Law Society and, from 2010 until 2011, as its President. Since 2015, Klearchos has been an Assistant Professor in the School of Law of the Cyprus Campus of the University of Central Lancashire, otherwise known as UCLan Cyprus. Since July 2019, he has also served as Deputy Head of School.
Rozalia Klimova holds a BA degree in International Relations from Sussex University (2012-2105) and a Bachelor of Laws from City, University of London. She recently completed her Master of Laws with Distinction at UCLan Cyprus and is looking to start the solicitor qualification programme in 2020.
Malak Ejledi is a Graphic Design Freelancer with a legal background. She holds an LLB (Hons) from the University of Central Lancashire, 2018 and has recently completed her Master of Laws with Distinction at University of Central Lancashire (Cyprus). She has experience in Alternative Dispute Resolution methods as she has competed in the 24th and 25th Williem C. Vis International Commercial Arbitration Moot (Vienna, Austria) in addition to being a co-author of Cyprus’ first Community Mediation Handbook.


Mostafa Elsan is Assistant Professor of Law at the Faculty of Law, Shahid Beheshti University (Tehran, Iran). He holds B.A. in Law from Isfahan University (Iran), M.A. in Private Law from Shiraz University (Iran) and PhD in Private Law from Shahid Beheshti University (Iran). His research resulted in several books and articles, including: “Internet Banking Law” (2015), in Persian; “Electronic Commerce Law” (2017), in Persian; “Cyberspace Law” (2019), in Persian; and “Civil Procedure – Volume I and II” , co-authored with Goudarz Eftekhar Jahromi (2017), in Persian.


Mohamed Mattar is Clinical Professor of Law and Head of Legal Skills Department of the Qatar University.



Abdool Rahim Khan is Judge of the High Court of Botswana. He has been an attorney since 1977. He was admitted as an attorney of the High Court of South Africa (T.P.D.) in 1977 and as an attorney of the High Court of Botswana in 1981. He was a law lecturer at the University of Botswana from 1980 to 1982 and a part-time lecturer with Barclays Bank of Botswana from 1984 to 1985. He was an acting chief magistrate of Gaborone in 2000 (September to December), 2002 (March to June), 2003 (January to April) and 2012 (March to May). He is a former honorary Swedish consul to Botswana (2007 to 2012).


Christella Kankindi is the Head of National Legal Aid Service – Burundi.


Nchunu Justice Sama is Barrister-at-Law and the Executive Director of the Foundation for Environment and Development (FEDEV).


Pascal Mukanya Mufuta works for the United Nations Development Programme.


Kokebe Wolde Jemaneh holds LL.B. from Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia and LL.M. in International Law and the Law of International Organizations (Human Rights Focus) from University of Groningen, Netherlands. Currently he is a member of Addis Ababa University School of Law and is serving as Managing Editor of Journal of Ethiopian Law. Earlier he has served as Research and Publications Officer of the Access to Justice Project at the Center for Human Rights, Addis Ababa University. He has also been teaching law at Bahir Dar University School of Law. While working there he has developed various teaching materials and has served as the founding editor-in-chief of Bahir Dar University Journal of Law. He has been involved in researches, and has published and edited works on access to justice, legal aid, women’s rights and the rights of children.


Al-Hassan Yahaya Seini is the Executive Director Legal Aid Scheme.


Nancy Baraza holds a PhD in law from the University of Nairobi. She is a senior lecturer and Chairperson of the department of Public law, School of Law, University of Nairobi. She teaches Jurisprudence, Access to Justice, Social Foundations of law and Family law. Her areas of research interest are Human Rights, Gender and the Law, Constitutional law and family law. Dr. Baraza has served as the first Deputy Chief Justice and Vice-President of the Supreme Court of the Republic of Kenya. She served as a commissioner with the Constitution of Kenya Review Commission which made the draft, laying basis for the Constitution of Kenya, 2010. She served as the Vice Chairperson of the Kenya Law Reform Commission and oversaw the major reforms in family law. She is a founder member of the Federation of Women Lawyers of Kenya, a premier women’s rights organization which is credited with influencing the women’s rights currently recognised and protected in the Constitution and consequential legislation. She served as its Chairperson between 1995 to 1998. Dr. Baraza has been participant in crucial international human rights conferences that have ensured major gains for women’s human rights, to wit, the 4th UN Women’s conference held in Beijing and the Vienna conference of 1993. She has been a legal practitioner under the firm name and style of Nancy Baraza and Company, She currently consults for the UN.
Kennedy Kimani. LLB (Moi University), PGDip in Law (Kenya School of Law), LLM Candidate – Public International Law 2018/2019 (University of Nairobi). Kennedy is an advocate of the High Court of Kenya and is currently working as the Regional Coordinator for Child Rights Governance and Child Poverty at Save the Children’s Regional Programme Unit (RPU), East and Southern Africa (ESA).


Masauko Edwin Chamkakala is the first and current Director of the Malawi Legal Aid Bureau. He is a legal practitioner with vast expertise on governance and human rights, among others. He holds a Bachelors of Law LL.B (Hons) Degree (Malawi), a Master’s Degree in Women’s Law (Zimbabwe) and an LL.M in Good Governance & Rule of Law (USA). Mr. Chamkakala’s work experience has seen him work with various private law firms in Malawi. He has also worked for the Malawi Revenue Authority, KPMG International, the Malawi Parliament, and the Office of President and Cabinet (Government Contracts Unit). Internationally Mr. Chamkakala has worked with the World Bank Group (USA) and had a management placement with the International Anti-Corruption Academy (IACA). Mr. Chamkakala has also consulted on legal, governance and human rights issues for the for Malawi Parliament, United Nations Development Program (UNDP), National Aids Commission (NAC), locally and internationally he has consulted for the World Bank Group, StAR Initiative, among other institutions. Mr. Chamkakala has also published two books, among other academic writings.
Bridget A. Uledi is research assistant at the Malawi Legal Aid Bureau.


Adelino de Assis Laice is Public Defender ande the National Director of Legal Aid of the Instituto do Patrocínio e Assistência Jurídica (IPAJ).
Gilberto Verissimo is Public Defender of the Instituto do Patrocínio e Assistência Jurídica (IPAJ).
Justino Ernesto Tonela is Public Defender and the General Director of the Instituto do Patrocínio e Assistência Jurídica (IPAJ).
Ladislau Salimo is Public Defender of the Instituto do Patrocínio e Assistência Jurídica (IPAJ).


Kennedy Kariseb is lecturer in comparative and human rights law at the Faculty of Law of the University of Namibia. He formerly served as the Managing Editor of the University of Namibia Law Review and Researcher at the Centre for Human Rights of the University of Pretoria. He is currently an associate editor of the Law Report Series of the African Court on Human and Peoples’ Rights. He holds an LLM (cum laude) in Human Rights and Democratisation in Africa from the University of Pretoria, South Africa.


Andrews Kananga is the Executive Director of The Legal Aid Forum at Rwanda.


Joelle Barnes is Professor of Public Law at the UniSey LLB programme. Joelle is the serving Executive Legal Assistant to the Chief Justice of the Seychelles Supreme Court. She holds a Masters degree in International Law, specifically related to international development and transnational regulation. She is admitted to the Bar in New York and South Africa. Prior to moving to Seychelles Joelle was the legal adviser at an international legal consultancy where she advised private clients and country states on regulations related to citizenship and residency programs. She was part of a team advising small states and non-governmental organisations during the negotiation of the United Nations Arms Trade Treaty. Prior to that she worked at a large law firm in South Africa on international and national dispute resolution cases. Joelle has also worked at the Constitutional Court of South Africa as a clerk and as research assistant to Justice O’Regan and Chief Justice Mogoeng, during which time her focus was primarily on administrative, constitutional and public international law. Joelle has published on the right to health care in South African prisons and on the United Kingdom combatting of trafficking in persons. She has a wide interest in public law and constitutional law.


Fatmata Claire Carlton-Hanciles is the first Executive Director of the Sierra Leone Legal Aid Board. She has been credited with transforming the scheme into the largest legal aid organization with offices and paralegals in fourteen of sixteen districts in the country.
Under her stewardship, the Board has carved a niche in the provision of primary justice services through the work of paralegals in remote communities across the country. It is also one of the lead organizations in implementing Goal 16 of the Sustainable Development Goals.
Carlton-Hanciles worked at the Special Court for Sierra Leone and rose to Principal Defender. The only Sierra Leonean to have held that position.
She is passionate about the poor and vulnerable for which the Board has won dozens of awards.


Dave Holness is the Director of the Law Clinic of the University of KwaZulu-Natal in Durban, South Africa and is a practising Attorney of the High Court of South Africa there. He has been its Director since 2008 and has worked in such legal aid clinic organisations since 2000. He holds from Rhodes University a B.A. (cum laude), L.L.B. (summa cum laude) and Post-Gad Diploma in Higher Education. From Nelson Mandela University he has an L.L.M. by thesis on the constitutional right to food in South Africa and an L.L.D. on developing a model for wider, improved and better coordinated free legal services/legal aid in South Africa in civil matters. Dave has published and lectured widely in South Africa and abroad mainly on topics related to socio-economic rights realisation and improving access to justice and has co-authored a series of undergraduate law textbooks since about 2007. Dave was previously the Head of Public Law in the University of KwaZulu-Natal School of Law.


Barnabas Ernest Kaniki. LLB (2011) from the University of Dar es Salaam. Post Graduate Diploma in Legal Practice (2017) from the Law School of Tanzania. LLM (Graduand) from the University of Dar Es Salaam.
Adv. Barnabas is a Human Rights Lawyer and an advocate of the High Court of Tanzania and subordinate courts thereto except for Primary, with experience in women’s rights, children’s rights, and advocacy for eight years. He has worked as Coordinator of Paralegal Program (2012-2015) and coordinated trainings to 400 paralegals in 18 districts of Tanzania mainland, who had worked to ensure access to justice to indigents within their communities. Currently Barnabas coordinates M&E unit at Tanzania Women Lawyers Association (TAWLA). He has also worked at various capacities such as a legal aid provider, trainer on women’s rights, program officer on women land rights, gender based violence and ending child marriage campaign.
Adv. Barnabas is also coordinating Mama Ardhi Coalition, a coalition of 10 local organizations in Tanzania working to promote women land rights in Tanzania. He also leads the legal team of Tanzania Ending Child Marriage Network.
Significantly, Barnabas’s experience and knowledge has been concentrated on promoting and protecting rights of the vulnerable and marginalized groups, especially women and children.
Christina Kamili Ruhinda is a Lawyer, holding a Master degree in Governance and Leadership – Executive Director of the Tanzania Network of Legal Aid Providers (TANLAP). She is also a Board Member of various Civil Societies Organizations and a Member of Ministry of Constitutional and Legal Affairs National Legal Aid Act Implementing Team. A Vital Voice Global Alumni (VVLEAD). She has further participated in Various African Union expert’s Meetings on collaboration between Informal and Formal Justice Structures for promotion of Rule of Law. Ms. Ruhinda has over 10 years of experience in the Legal Aid sub-sector, Human Rights, Gender, Governance, Justice and Rule of Law, Election Observation, Networking, Programme Management and Capacity Development. She has, inter alia, been engaged in the identification of potential issues that have had an effect on access to Justice in Tanzania; analyzing human rights abuses and proposing possible reforms; conducting assessment of Tanzania’s legislations, practice and capacities in respect to regional, continental and international human rights standards – treaty obligations and compliance. Ms. Ruhinda has authored a number of publications including thematic reports, articles and papers in international journals. She is fluent in English, Swahili, Ki – Rundi, Ki – Nyarwanda and has conversational French.
Chitung Said. I holds a multidiscipline master’s degree in International Cooperation and Development from Pavia University in Italy, with majors in human development, economics, project cycle management, capacity building, institutional strengthening, and policy development to mention a few. I have practical understanding and familiarity to work with both bilateral and multilateral donors’ funded programmes in Africa, with huge working experiences in development missions for international organisations in Angola, Uganda and Tanzania. My international development expertise fall under the areas of Programme management, Monitoring and evaluation, Research, Programme learning, Grant management, Proposal development, Organizational capacity assessment, Strategic plan development, policy and advocacy development, Fundraising and communication strategies. I have profound personal resilience working in multicultural settings and also in post-conflict areas, specifically in areas of health sector, Education, Livelihood, Agriculture, Civic engagement and Governance programme for Legal aid sector.
Deogratias Bwire is an Advocate of the High Court of Tanzania and subordinate courts thereto, a Human Rights and constitutional lawyer holding Master of laws in Human Rights and Comparative Constitutional Law from Central European University (Budapest). Currently he is working at the Tanzania Human Rights Defenders Coalition (THRDC) as the head of the Capacity Building and Empowerment desk.
As the head of the Capacity building and empowerment desk, he is involved in assessing capacity needs among target groups, developed capacity building plans, budgets, Monitoring and Evaluation plans and interventions strategies on security management based on the needs of the target groups, trained CSOs/HRDs and other target groups on various aspects of security and risk management, human rights and their enforcement mechanisms and report preparation.
As part of his skills to develop advocacy initiatives, he also heads the Universal Periodic Review (UPR) desk and coordinates the newly established CSOs Anti-torture Network of about 40 CSOs aiming at increasing Knowledge and Awareness of the occurrence of torture and Ill-treatment in Tanzania.
Apart from conducting trainings on security management and risk assessment training to human rights organizations, Mr. Deogratias has several times been invited present before freedom of expression and Online freedom stakeholders on various laws affecting free expression and internet rights in Tanzania mainly the cybercrimes Act, the Media Services Act, the Access to information and the 2018 Online Content Regulations. He has also got opportunities to attend various regional and global forums on online freedom such as the Forum on Internet Freedom in Africa (FIFAfrica).


Isaac Ssemakadde is the founder and CEO of Centre for Legal Aid in Uganda. In 2018 the Uganda Law Society voted him as the Most Outstanding Advocate in the field of Public Interest Litigation.


Charles Dinda, a holder of Bachelor of Laws, works for the Danish Institute for Human Rights in Zambia as Senior Legal Advisor. He also served as the national expert on access to justice under a project called Community Justice Project (CJP). Under his current position, he provides technical assistance to the Programme for Legal Empowerment and Enhanced Justice Delivery (PLEED) in Zambia supported by the European Union and the Federal Republic of Germany, with technical assistance from the Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ) and DIHR. Besides this, he has a long history and expertise of working with traditional justice institutions, civil society organizations both at community grassroots and national levels in Zambia. Mr. Dinda holds various qualifications in justice delivery, legal aid and human rights. He has long years of practical experience in paralegalism, human rights advocacy skills and training on HIV and AIDS in Sub Saharan Africa. He is also a national trainer for Local Court Magistrates, a training programme carried out in collaboration with the Directorate of Local Courts at the High Court of Zambia. Mr. Dinda has more than 20 years of unique practical experience working in the field of law, combining criminal, civil and customary justice systems in Zambia, which has contributed greatly in the development and training of state institutions, traditional leaders and their customary justice institutions, at all levels, from communities, districts to the provincial and central levels.
Karol Limondin is Senior Legal Adviser at the Danish Institute for Human Rights (DIHR), currently posted in Lusaka, Zambia, providing expertise and support to the implementation of the Programme for Legal Empowerment and Enhanced Justice Delivery (PLEED) in Zambia supported by the European Union and the Federal Republic of Germany, with technical assistance from the Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ) and DIHR. Mr. Limondin has specialised in legal aid and paralegalism since he joined DIHR in 2008 with a focus on the development of legal aid policy and implementation framework in Rwanda, Kenya, Tanzania, Uganda and Zambia. Mr. Limondin’s work in that regard has ranged from legal aid and paralegals baselines, capacity development for paralegals and legal aid CSOs, development of training curriculum and materials for paralegals, conceptualisation and implementation of innovative legal aid service delivery models, to advocacy and drafting of legal aid policies and regulatory frameworks. In addition, Mr. Limondin has worked extensively since 2005 with a wide range of state institutions in Rwanda and Zambia to develop their justice delivery capacity based on human rights. This includes the judiciary (all court levels), the national prosecution service, the national police as well as informal justice systems and traditional leaders at community level. Mr. Limondin’s current involvement under the PLEED in Zambia covers, inter alia: (i) The development and implementation of a policy, legislative and regulatory framework on legal aid. On 1 October 2018, the Government of Zambia adopted a National Legal Aid Policy with the objective to ensure efficient and effective delivery of legal aid services to the poor and vulnerable people in Zambia. The process of amending the legislation on legal aid is underway. (ii) The development and operationalisation of a three-level paralegal training scheme. On 8 July 2018, the Technical Education, Vocational and Entrepreneurship Training Authority Zambia approved the newly established training scheme for paralegals in Zambia. Training courses are currently taking place at all three levels, for a total of 270 paralegals. (iii) The establishment and operation of 15 legal desks at court, correctional facility and police station levels based on a cooperation between the Legal Aid Board in Zambia and CSOs. In 2018, the 15 desks provided legal aid to almost 11,000 persons. Women and juveniles constitute 30 percent of the clients.


Sharon Hofisi (Lead National Researcher) is a lecturer of International Legal Justice and Fundamentals of International Law in the Department of Political and Administrative Studies at the University of Zimbabwe. He specialises in constitutional and administrative justice. His work experience has involved working as a public prosecutor, human rights, and private practice. He is currently doing his doctoral studies at the University of Pretoria in South Africa. His research focuses on how localised transitional justice frameworks such as independent institutions supporting democracy can foster a sustainable culture of human rights in Zimbabwe. He has published articles on elections, international law in refereed journals. He holds an LLB, LLM and MSC in International Relations, all from the University of Zimbabwe. He is a human rights lawyer, a director of Rights Institute Southern Africa and a Canon Collins scholar.
Patricia Shumba Mavhembu is a Lawyer by proffession. She holds a Bachelor of Laws Honours Degree with the University of Zimbabwe and a Masters in Women’s Law with the same University. She has worked as legal practitioner in private practice and as a Public Prosecutor in Government. She has a passion for research and is currently an aspiring PHD student.
Edknowledge Mandikwaza is a Canon Collins Scholar pursuing Doctoral studies at the Durban University of Technology, South Africa. He is also a practitioner and consultant in alternative dispute resolution (ADR), transitional justice and peace building. His research interests centres on development policy and practice, human rights, governance, grassroots peace building and transitional justice. He graduated with an MSc. in Development Policy, Practice and Process (University of Reading –UK), an MSc. in International Relations and a BSc. (Hons) in Political Science (University of Zimbabwe –ZW). Edknowledge also trained in negotiation, mediation and consensus building with the Dag Hammarskjöld Foundation and the Institute of Security Studies.
Gerald Kamonera is Legal Practitioner, Notary Public and Conveyancer.