Research in progress

A New Global Survey


It would be impossible to thank all those who have helped with the lengthy process of collecting the material for this world survey.

The “Access to Justice – A New Global Survey” is being jointly conducted by the National Coordinators of the Global Access to Justice Project, operating under the General Coordination of Alan Paterson, Bryant Garth, Cleber Alves, Diogo Esteves and Earl Johnson Jr., and also under the regional coordination of Achilles Emilianides, André Castro, Anna Barlow, Anželika Banevičienė, Diogo Esteves, Earl Johnson Jr., Hennie van As, Kim Economides, Peter Biggelaar, Sahar Maranlou and Tomoki Ikenaga.

Although all those who contributed to the local surveys are recognized on the title pages of the National Reports already delivered, we would like to thank especially Ab Currie (Canada), Aditi Singh (India), Aino Jauhiainen (Finland), Allie Cunninghame (New Zealand), Andrew Field (Ireland), Ángel Torres Machuca (Ecuador), Anne-Sophie Chavent-Leclère (France), Barnabas Kaniki (Tanzania), Belinda del Socorro Guevara Casaya (Nicaragua), Bernard Hubeau (Belgium), Bridget A. Uledi (Malawi), Bridget Irvine (New Zealand), Bridgette Toy-Cronin (New Zealand), Carlos Manuel Gonçalves de Melo Marinho (Portugal), Charles Dinda (Zambia), Chris A. Carling (Finland), Christina Kamili (Tanzania), Dave Holness (South Africa), David Turner (New Zealand), Deogratias Bwire (Tanzania), Diego Vaca Enríquez (Ecuador), Dotto Justo (Tanzania), Edknowledge Mandikwaza (Zimbabwe), Elisabetta Silvestri (Italy), Elizabeth Arroyo León (Ecuador), Enrico Giansanti (Sweden), Federico Alessandro Goria (Italy), Geline Alfred Fuko (Tanzania), Gerald Kamonera (Zimbabwe), Goce Kocevski (North Macedonia), Gotaro Ichiki (Japan), Heraclitos Muhire (Sweden), Hongyao Wu (China), Idil Elveris (Turkey), Isabel Schoultz (Sweden), Ivanka Ivanova (Bulgaria), Jan Winczorek (Poland), John Scanlon (Ireland), Juan Mendoza Díaz (Cuba), Julen Fernández Conte (Spain), Kamila Marciniak (Poland), Kanwal DP Singh (India), Karol Limondin (Zambia), Kati Nieminen (Finland), Kati Rantala (Finland), Keita Abe (Japan), Kennedy Kimani (Kenya), Konpal Preet Kaur (India), Laura Sarasoja (Finland), Livia Giuliani (Italy), Maciej Kruk (Poland), Manabu Wagatsuma (Japan), Marjolaine Roccati (France), Masauko Edwin Chamkakala (Malawi), Mchereli Machumbana (Tanzania), Melina Buckley (Canada), Mirel Legrá Fleitas (Cuba), Nancy Makokha Baraza (Kenya), Neelu Mehra (India), Nitya Thakur (India), Noora Alasuutari (Finland), Pasiance  Mlowe (Tanzania), Patricia Mavhembu (Zimbabwe), Raymond Paul Kanegena (Tanzania), Renu Gosala (India), Ronan Deegan (Ireland), Said Chitung (Tanzania), Seda Kalem (Turkey), Sharon Hofisi (Zimbabwe), Sheyla Patricia Calero Castro (Nicaragua), Sofía Libedinsky (Chile), Sonal Makhija (Finland), Stefan Rutten (Belgium), Steven Gibens (Belgium), Susanne Peters (Netherlands), Takashi Sagawa (Japan), Tetsuo Oishi (Japan), Thelma Guisell Arévalo Chamorro (Nicaragua), Tomoki Ikenaga (Japan), Trevor Farrow (Canada), Utti Mwang’amba (Tanzania), Wakaba Hara (Japan), Yaira Obstbaum (Finland) and Yseult Marique (France).

It is also important to acknowledge the translation support provided by the Language Coordinators Sylvia Quintão Leite, Mirel Legrá Fleitas, Federico Alessandro Goria, Fernando Antunes Soubhia, Fernando Gama de Miranda Netto, Franklyn Roger Alves Silva and Tomoki Ikenaga. And also the support of the lead graphic and website designer Guilherme Valente.

The Global Access to Justice Project also wishes to acknowledge the generous financial support of the Fluminense Federal University (Universidade Federal Fluminense – UFF), the National Association of Federal Public Defender’s (Associação Nacional dos Defensores Públicos Federais), the Plublic Defender’s Office of State of Rio de Janeiro (Defensoria Pública do Estado do Rio de Janeiro), the Center of Legal Studies of the Plublic Defender’s Office of State of Rio de Janeiro (Centro de Estudos Jurídicos da Defensoria Pública do Estado do Rio de Janeiro), the Superior School Foundation of the Plublic Defender’s Office of State of Rio de Janeiro (Fundação Escola Superior da Defensoria Pública do Estado do Rio de Janeiro), the Public Defender’s Office of State of São Paulo (Defensoria Pública do Estado de São Paulo) and the Brazilian Federal Public Defender’s Office (Defensoria Pública da União). It is also important to mention our academical debt to the Fluminense Federal University (Universidade Federal Fluminense – UFF), the University of São Paulo (Universidade de São Paulo – USP) and the University of California – Irvine (UCI).

The Global Access to Justice Project also wishes to acknowledge the cooperation of the following organisations: Danish Institute for Human Rights (DIHR) – Zambia; Legal Aid Board – Ireland; Legal Aid Board – Netherlands; Legal Aid Board – Scotland; Legal Aid Service – Georgia; Legal Aid Ukraine, Centre for Legal Aid Provision – Ukraine; Lund University – Sweden; Faculty of Law and Administration of the University of Warsaw – Poland; Free Legal Aid Agency – Kosovo; Heal Zimbabwe Trust – Zimbabwe; Hungarian Helsinki Committee – Hungary; Institute of Criminology and Legal Policy in the University of Helsinki – Finland; Japan Federation of Bar Associations (日本弁護士連合会) and the Japan Legal Support Center (法テラス) – Japan; Macedonian Young Lawyers Association (MYLA) – North Macedonia; Malawi Legal Aid Bureau – Malawi; Maldives Law Institute – Maldives; National Institute of Legal Aid – China University of Political Science and Law – China; Nelson Mandela University – South Africa; Permanent Office of the Consejo General de la Abogacía Española – Spain; Pontificia Universidad Católica del Perú (PUCP) – Perú; Public Defender’s Office of Argentina (Ministerio Público de la Defensa de la Nación Argentina) – Argentina; Public Defender’s Office of Chile (Defensoría Penal Pública del Chile) – Chile; Public Defender’s Office of Costa Rica (Defensa Pública de Costa Rica) – Costa Rica; Public Defender’s Office of Nicaragua (Defensoría Pública de la República de Nicaragua) – Nicaragua; Public Defender’s Office of Paraguay (Ministerio de la Defensa Pública del Paraguay) – Paraguay; Public Defender’s Office of States of Rio de Janeiro and São Paulo (Defensoria Pública dos Estados do Rio de Janeiro e São Paulo) – Brazil; Public Defender’s Office of Uruguay (Defensa Pública del Uruguay) and the Association of Public Defenders of Uruguay (Asociación de Defensores Públicos del Uruguay – ADEPU); State University of Rio de Janeiro (Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro) – Brazil; Strathclyde University Law School – Scotland; Tanzania Network of Legal Aid Providers (TANLAP) – Tanzania;  University of Central Lancashire (UCLan) – Cyprus; University of Coimbra (Universidade de Coimbra) – Portugal; University of Havana (Universidad de La Habana) – Cuba; University of KwaZulu-Natal (UKZN) – South Africa; University of Nairobi – Kenya; University of Oñati, International Institute for the Sociology of Law – Germany; University of Otago Legal Issues Centre (UOLIC) – New Zealand; University of Pavia – Italy; University School of Law and Legal Studies, Guru Gobind Singh Inderprastha University – India; University of Wisconsin-Madison – United States; United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC).

Lastly, we would like to express our foremost gratitude to the International Legal Aid Group. This “Access to Justice” survey could not have been accomplished and the Global Access to Justice Project itself would not exist without ILAG’s cooperation and unconditional support.

This research is dedicated to the memory of Professor Mauro Cappelletti (1927–2004) and to all those who continue struggling to deliver justice and to make the world a fairer place.